# Template:Math

{{{1}}}

This template is used on approximately 9,300 pages and changes may be widely noticed. Test changes in the template's /sandbox or /testcases subpages, or in your own user subpage. Consider discussing changes on the talk page before implementing them. |

The **math** template formats HTML—or wikimarkup generated—mathematical formulas in the similar fashion as MathJax, a web-based TeX formula interpreter implemented as a cross-browser JavaScript library. The template has the advantage of not requiring Javascript to be enabled on the user's browser, and also of having less of the *flash of unstyled content* issue than MathJax. The template uses the `texhtml`

class by default for inline text style formulas, which aims to match the size of the serif font with the surrounding sans-serif font (see below), or the `texhtml-big`

class for stand-alone display style formulas if either of the `big`

or `size`

parameters are used (using the {{bigmath}} template gives you a default size of 165% for stand-alone display style formulas). The template also prevents line-wrapping.

## Usage

Use this template for inline, non-complex formulas as an alternative to using the `<math>...</math>`

format (see: Help:Math).

### Examples

{{math|''f''(''x'') {{=}} ''b''<sup>''x''</sup> {{=}} ''y''}}

- produces:
*f*(*x*) =*b*^{x}=*y*

{{math|sin π {{=}} 0}}

- produces: sin π = 0.

{{math|{{intmath|int|0|+∞}} ''e''<sup>−''x''</sup> d''x'' {{=}} 1}}

- produces: ∫+∞

0*e*^{−x}d*x*= 1

'''{{math|{{sfrac|1|2}} − {{sfrac|1|3}} {{=}} {{sfrac|1|6}}}}'''

- produces:
**1/2 − 1/3 = 1/6**. Note the triple-apostrophes have set the whole formula as bold.

{{math|({{sqrt|2}})<sup>2</sup> {{=}} 2}}

- produces: (√2)
^{2}= 2.

### Use of equals-sign and absolute value bars

The equals sign, =, and bar, |, are used as syntax by the wiki template system. Therefore, if a single equals-sign ("=") is used, it will fail to render, instead showing "{{{1}}}". For example, the following template-coding would be invalid:

{{math|1 + 2 = 3}}

- produces: {{{1}}}, which is invalid code

To resolve this, either: (a) Start the formula with "`1=`

" as in:

{{math|1=1 + 2 = 3}}

- produces: 1 + 2 = 3, or else, (b) include the equals-sign in double-braces "{{=}}" as in:

{{math|1 + 2 {{=}} 3}}

- produces: 1 + 2 = 3.

A similar difficulty concerns the vertical bars ("|") used to indicate absolute value, which without care would get interpreted as part of the template syntax. The solution is different than for the equals sign: such bars should be entered as "{{!}}":

{{math|{{!}}''f''(''x'') − ''a''{{!}} < ε}}

- produces: |
*f*(*x*) −*a*| < ε.

This example can also be produced by the following:

{{math|{{mabs|''f''(''x'') − ''a''}} < ε}}

- produces: |
*f*(*x*) −*a*| < ε

#### within tables

Fields within a table may be delimited either with a double vertical bar ("||"), or when at the beginning of a line, by single vertical bar ("|"). However, when using the single vertical bar convention, and the first character in a table field is the mathematical symbol *absolute value bar*, the character will be wrongly interpreted as part of the table's field delimiter, and so will not display. In such cases, delimit that table field using the 'two vertical bar' convention, even though it is at the beginning of a line.

### Parameters

The following parameters are optional:

`big=1`

– This will render the formula in a bigger fontsize, increased to 165%.`size=`

– Use this to specify your own fontsize.*font-size*

{{math|big=1|1 + 2 {{=}} 3}}

- produces: 1 + 2 = 3

### TemplateData

**TemplateData for Math**

<templatedata>{ "description": "This template formats markup generated mathematical formulas with HTML and CSS. The template tries to match the size of the serif font with the surrounding sans-serif font. The template also prevents line-wrapping. Use this template for non-complex formulas as an alternative to using the <math> format.", "params": {

"1": { "label": "formula", "description": "wrap an inline formula in wikitext.", "type": "string", "required": true }, "big": { "label": "bigger font size", "description": "if set to ‘1’, this will render the formula in a bigger font size, increased to 165%", "type": "string", "required": false }, "size": { "label": "custom font size", "description": "use this to specify your own font size", "type": "string", "required": false }

}}</templatedata>

## Notes

The font and fontsize used for `texhtml`

, as defined in MediaWiki:Common.css, was determined by comparing common default fonts found on Windows, OS X and Linux and is scaled to 118% to match their x-height. However, not everyone uses the default fonts. If you find that the rendered math is not of the same size as the surrounding text, you can adjust this in your personal CSS. For instance, the DejaVu Sans and DejaVu Serif fonts do *not* need scaling, in which case `span.texhtml { font-size: 100%; }`

will restore proper display.

The `texhtml`

classname is a remnant from the TeX renderer, which had a user preference to render TeX-written formulae in "HTML when simple". That option has been removed some time ago, but the classname continues to be used for formulae written in HTML.

## See also

- Help: Displaying a formula
- WP:«math», a comparison of different representation of mathematical expressions