Open back unrounded vowel

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Template:Short description Template:Infobox IPA Template:IPA vowels

The open back unrounded vowel, or low back unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is Template:Angbr IPA, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is A. The letter Template:Angbr IPA is called script a because it lacks the extra hook on top of a printed letter a, which corresponds to a different vowel, the open front unrounded vowel. Script a, which has its linear stroke on the bottom right, should not be confused with turned script a, Template:IPA, which has its linear stroke on the top left and corresponds to a rounded version of this vowel, the open back rounded vowel.

In some languages (such as Azerbaijani, Estonian, Luxembourgish and Toda)Template:SfnpTemplate:SfnpTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp there is the near-open back unrounded vowel (a sound between cardinal Template:IPA and Template:IPAblink), which can be transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA or Template:Angbr IPA.

The Hamont dialect of Limburgish has been reported to contrast long open front, central and back unrounded vowels.Template:Sfnp This is extremely unusual.


Template:Open vowel Template:Back vowel Template:Unrounded vowel


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans StandardTemplate:Sfnp daar Template:IPA 'there' The quality varies between open near-back unrounded Template:IPA, open back unrounded Template:IPA and even open back rounded Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp See Afrikaans phonology
Arabic StandardTemplate:Sfnp طويل Template:IPA 'tall' Allophone of long and short Template:IPA near emphatic consonants, depending on the speaker's accent. See Arabic phonology
Armenian EasternTemplate:Sfnp հաց Template:IPA 'bread'
AzerbaijaniTemplate:Sfnp qardaş Template:IPA 'brother' Near-open.Template:Sfnp
Bashkir ҡаҙ / qað Template:Audio-IPA 'goose'
Catalan Many dialectsTemplate:Sfnp pal Template:IPA 'stick' Allophone of Template:IPA in contact with velar consonants.Template:Sfnp See Catalan phonology
Some dialectsTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp mà Template:IPA 'hand' More central (Template:IPA, Template:IPAblink) in other dialects; fully front Template:IPAblink in Majorcan Catalan.Template:Sfnp
Some Valencian and Majorcan speakersTemplate:Sfnp lloc Template:IPA 'place' Unrounded allophone of Template:IPA in some accents.Template:Sfnp Can be centralized.
Some southern Valencian speakersTemplate:Sfnp bou Template:IPA 'bull' Pronunciation of the vowel Template:IPA before Template:IPA.Template:Sfnp Can be centralized.
Chinese MandarinTemplate:Sfnp / bàng Template:Audio-IPA 'stick' Allophone of Template:IPA before Template:IPA.Template:Sfnp See Standard Chinese phonology
Dutch StandardTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp bad Template:IPA 'bath' Backness varies among dialects; in the Standard Northern accent it is fully back.Template:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp In the Standard Belgian accent it is raised and fronted to Template:IPA.Template:Sfnp See Dutch phonology
LeidenTemplate:Sfnp Template:IPA Near-open fully back; can be rounded Template:IPAblink instead.Template:Sfnp See Dutch phonology
AmsterdamTemplate:Sfnp aap Template:IPA 'monkey' Corresponds to Template:IPA in standard Dutch.
The HagueTemplate:Sfnp nauw Template:IPA 'narrow' Corresponds to Template:IPA in standard Dutch.
English CardiffTemplate:Sfnp hot Template:IPA 'hot' Somewhat raised and fronted.Template:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp
General AmericanTemplate:Sfnp Template:IPA May be more front [[[:Template:IPA]] ~ Template:IPA link], especially in accents without the cot-caught merger. See English phonology
CockneyTemplate:Sfnp bath Template:IPA 'bath' Fully back. It can be more front Template:IPA instead.
General South AfricanTemplate:Sfnp Fully back. Broad varieties usually produce a rounded vowel [[[:Template:IPA link]] ~ Template:IPA link] instead, while Cultivated SAE prefers a more front vowel Template:IPA. See South African English phonology
South AfricanTemplate:Sfnp
Template:IPA Typically more front than cardinal Template:IPA. It may be as front as Template:IPAblink in some Cultivated South African and southern English speakers. See English phonology and South African English phonology
Received PronunciationTemplate:Sfnp
Non-local Dublin[2] back Template:IPA 'back' Allophone of Template:IPA before velars for some speakers.[2]
EstonianTemplate:Sfnp vale Template:IPA 'wrong' Near-open.Template:Sfnp See Estonian phonology
Faroese Some dialectsTemplate:Sfnp vátur Template:IPA 'wet' Corresponds to Template:IPA in standard language.Template:Sfnp See Faroese phonology
FinnishTemplate:Sfnp kana Template:IPA 'hen' Near-open,Template:Sfnp also described as open central Template:IPAblink.[3] See Finnish phonology
French Conservative ParisianTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp pas Template:IPA 'not' Contrasts with Template:IPAslink, but many speakers have only one open vowel Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp See French phonology
QuebecTemplate:Sfnp pâte Template:IPA 'paste' Contrasts with Template:IPAslink.Template:Sfnp See Quebec French phonology
GalicianTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp irmán Template:IPA 'brother' Allophone of Template:IPA in contact with velar consonants.Template:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp See Galician phonology
GeorgianTemplate:Sfnp გუდ / guda Template:IPA 'leather bag' Usually not fully back [ɑ], typically [ɑ̟] to [ä].[4] Sometimes transcribed as /a/.
German StandardTemplate:Sfnp Gourmand Template:IPA 'gourmand' Nasalized; often realized as rounded Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp See Standard German phonology
Many speakersTemplate:Sfnp nah Template:IPA 'near' Used by speakers in Northern Germany, East Central Germany, Franconia and Switzerland.Template:Sfnp Also a part of the Standard Austrian accent.Template:Sfnp More front in other accents. See Standard German phonology
Greek SfakianTemplate:Sfnp μπύρα Template:IPA "beer" Corresponds to central Template:IPA in Modern Standard Greek.Template:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp See Modern Greek phonology
Hungarian Some dialectsTemplate:Sfnp magyar Template:IPA 'Hungarian' Weakly rounded Template:IPAblink in standard Hungarian.Template:Sfnp See Hungarian phonology
Inuit West GreenlandicTemplate:Sfnp oqarpoq Template:IPA 'he says' Allophone of Template:IPA before and especially between uvulars.Template:Sfnp See Inuit phonology
Italian Some Piedmont dialects casa [ˈkɑːzɑ] 'house' Allophone of /a/ which in Italian is largely realised as central [ä].
KaingangTemplate:Sfnp ga Template:IPA 'land, soil' Varies between back Template:IPA and central Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp
LimburgishTemplate:SfnpTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp bats Template:IPA 'buttock' The quality varies between open back Template:IPA,Template:Sfnp open near-back Template:IPATemplate:Sfnp and near-open near-back Template:IPATemplate:Sfnp (illustrated in the example word, which is from the Maastrichtian dialect), depending on the dialect.
Low GermanTemplate:Sfnp al / aal Template:IPA 'all' Backness may vary among dialects.Template:Sfnp
LuxembourgishTemplate:Sfnp Kapp Template:IPA 'head' Near-open fully back.Template:Sfnp See Luxembourgish phonology
Malay Kedah dialectTemplate:Sfnp mata Template:IPA 'eye' See Malay phonology
NorwegianTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp hat Template:IPA 'hate' The example word is from Urban East Norwegian. Central Template:IPAblink in some other dialects.Template:SfnpTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp See Norwegian phonology
RussianTemplate:Sfnp палка Template:IPA 'stick' Occurs only before the hard Template:IPA, but not when a palatalized consonant precedes. See Russian phonology
SemaTemplate:Sfnp amqa Template:IPA 'lower back' Possible realization of Template:IPA after uvular stops.Template:Sfnp
Swedish Some dialects jаg Template:IPA 'I' Weakly rounded Template:IPAblink in Central Standard Swedish.Template:Sfnp See Swedish phonology
TodaTemplate:Sfnp Template:IPA 'elephant' Near-open.Template:Sfnp
TurkishTemplate:Sfnp at Template:IPA 'horse' Also described as central Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp See Turkish phonology
UkrainianTemplate:Sfnp мати [ˈmɑtɪ] 'mother' See Ukrainian phonology
Vietnamese Some dialects in North Central and Central gà [ɣɑ˨˩] 'chicken' See [5][6]
West Frisian StandardTemplate:Sfnp lang Template:IPA 'long' Also described as central Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp See West Frisian phonology
AasterskTemplate:Sfnp maat Template:IPA 'mate' Contrasts with a front Template:IPAslink.Template:Sfnp See West Frisian phonology

See also



External links

Template:IPA navigation