Open back rounded vowel

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Template:Short description Template:Infobox IPA Template:IPA vowels

The open back rounded vowel, or low back rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is Template:Angbr IPA. It is called "turned script a", being a rotated version of "script (cursive) a", which is the variant of a that lacks the extra stroke on top of a "printed a". Turned script a Template:Angbr IPA has its linear stroke on the left, whereas "script a" Template:Angbr IPA (for its unrounded counterpart) has its linear stroke on the right.

According to Template:Harvcoltxt, Assamese has an "over-rounded" Template:IPA, with rounding as strong as that for Template:IPA.Template:Sfnp

According to the phonetician Geoff Lindsey, Template:Angbr IPA may be an entirely superfluous IPA symbol, as the sound it represents is far too similar to the open-mid back rounded vowel Template:IPAblink, which makes it unlikely that any language would contrast these two vowels phonemically. He also writes that the contemporary Standard Southern British (SSB) accent lacks Template:IPA, having replaced it with the more common Template:IPAblink (a realization that is also found in e.g. Australia,Template:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp New Zealand[2] and Scotland),[3]Template:Sfnp and advocates for transcribing this vowel with the symbol Template:Angbr IPA in SSB.[3]

This is not to be understood as Template:IPA having the same quality as Template:IPA (which Lindsey transcribes with Template:Angbr IPA), as the latter is close-mid Template:IPAblink, not open-mid.[3] Lindsey also says that more open variants of Template:IPA used formerly in SSB are satisfyingly represented by the symbols Template:IPA and Template:IPAblink in narrow phonetic transcription, and Template:Angbr IPA in phonemic/broad phonetic transcription. According to him, the endless repetition of the symbol Template:Angbr IPA in publications on BrE has given this vowel a familiarity out of all proportion to its scarcity in the world’s languages.[3]


Template:Open vowel Template:Back vowel Template:Rounded vowel


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans StandardTemplate:Sfnp daar Template:IPA 'there' Fully back. Used by some speakers, particularly young female speakers of northern accents. Other speakers use an unrounded vowel Template:IPA.Template:Sfnp See Afrikaans phonology
AssameseTemplate:Sfnp পোট্ Template:IPA 'to bury' Also described as close-mid near-back Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp
Catalan MajorcanTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp soc Template:IPA 'clog' Typically transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA. See Catalan phonology
Some Valencian speakersTemplate:Sfnp taula Template:IPA 'table' Can be realized as unrounded Template:IPAblink.
Dutch LeidenTemplate:Sfnp bad Template:IPA 'bath' Near-open fully back; may be unrounded Template:IPAblink instead.Template:Sfnp It corresponds to Template:IPAblink in standard Dutch.
Some dialectsTemplate:Sfnp bot Template:IPA 'bone' Some non-Randstad dialects,Template:Sfnp for example those of Den Bosch and Groningen. It is open-mid Template:IPAblink in standard Dutch.
English Received PronunciationTemplate:Sfnp not Template:IPA 'not' Somewhat raised. Younger RP speakers may pronounce a closer vowel Template:IPAblink. See English phonology
Northern EnglishTemplate:Sfnp May be somewhat raised and fronted.Template:Sfnp
South AfricanTemplate:Sfnp Template:IPA Near-back and weakly rounded.Template:Sfnp Some younger speakers of the General variety may actually have a higher and fully unrounded vowel Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp See South African English phonology
General American thought Template:Audio-IPA 'thought' Vowel /ɔ(:)/ is lowered (Phonetic realization of /ɔ(:)/ is much lower in GA than in RP).

However "Short o" before r before a vowel (a short o sound followed by r and then another vowel, as in orange, forest, moral, and warrant) is realized as [oɹ~ɔɹ].

Inland Northern American[4] See Northern cities vowel shift
IndianTemplate:Sfnp Template:IPA Template:IPA and Template:IPA differ entirely by length in Indian English.
WelshTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp Template:IPA Open-mid in Cardiff; may merge with Template:IPAslink in northern dialects.
German Many speakersTemplate:Sfnp Gourmand Template:IPA 'gourmand' Nasalized; common phonetic realization of Template:IPAslink.Template:Sfnp See Standard German phonology
Many Swiss dialectsTemplate:Sfnp mane Template:IPA 'remind' The example word is from the Zurich dialect, in which Template:IPA is in free variation with the unrounded Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp
Hungarian StandardTemplate:Sfnp magyar Template:IPA 'Hungarian' Somewhat fronted and raised, with only slight rounding; sometimes transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA. Unrounded Template:IPAblink in some dialects.Template:Sfnp See Hungarian phonology
IbibioTemplate:Sfnp d Template:IPA 'marry' Near-open;Template:Sfnp typically transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA.
Irish UlsterTemplate:Sfnp ólann Template:IPA '(he) drinks' Near-open;Template:Sfnp may be transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA.
Istro-RomanianTemplate:Sfnp cåp Template:IPA 'head' See Istro-Romanian pronunciation (in Romanian).
LehaliTemplate:Sfnp dö Template:IPA 'yam' Raised vowel, being the back rounded counterpart of Template:IPAslink in a symmetrical vowel inventory.Template:Sfnp
LemerigTemplate:Sfnp ān̄sār Template:IPA 'person' Raised vowel, being the back rounded counterpart of Template:IPAslink in a symmetrical vowel inventory.Template:Sfnp
Limburgish MaastrichtianTemplate:Sfnp plaots Template:IPA 'place' Near-open fully back; typically transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA.Template:Sfnp Corresponds to Template:IPAblink in other dialects.
Norwegian Urban EastTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp topp Template:IPA 'top' Near-open,Template:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp also described as close-mid back Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp Typically transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA. See Norwegian phonology
Dialects along the Swedish borderTemplate:Sfnp hat Template:IPA 'hate' Weakly rounded and fully back.Template:Sfnp See Norwegian phonology
Persian ف‍‍ارسی Template:IPA 'Persian'
Slovak Some speakersTemplate:Sfnp a Template:IPA 'and' Under Hungarian influence, some speakers realize the short Template:IPA as rounded.Template:Sfnp See Slovak phonology
Swedish Central StandardTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp jаg Template:IPA 'I' Near-open fully back weakly rounded vowel.Template:Sfnp Typically transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA. See Swedish phonology
GothenburgTemplate:Sfnp Template:IPA More rounded than in Central Standard Swedish.Template:Sfnp
Uzbek Standard[5] choy Template:IPA 'tea'
Vastese[6] uâʃtə
YorubaTemplate:Sfnp Template:Example needed Most often transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA.

See also


  1. Template:Vowel terminology
  2. Template:Harvcoltxt. Some sources (e.g. Template:Harvcoltxt) describe it as more central Template:IPAblink than back.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Geoff Lindsey (2012) Morgen — a suitable case for treatment, Speech Talk
  4. Template:Citation
  5. Sjoberg, Andrée F. (1963). Uzbek Structural Grammar. Uralic and Altaic Series. 18. Bloomington: Indiana University. p. 17. 
  6. "Vastesi Language - Vastesi in the World". Vastesi in the World. Retrieved 21 November 2016. 


External links

Template:IPA navigation