Open-mid front rounded vowel

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Template:Infobox IPA Template:IPA vowels

The open-mid front rounded vowel, or low-mid front rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the sound is Template:Angbr IPA. The symbol œ is a lowercase ligature of the letters o and e. The sound Template:Angbr IPA, a small capital version of the Template:Angbr ligature, is used for a distinct vowel sound: the open front rounded vowel.

Open-mid front compressed vowel

The open-mid front compressed vowel is typically transcribed in IPA simply as Template:Angbr IPA, which is the convention used in this article. There is no dedicated IPA diacritic for compression. However, the compression of the lips can be shown by the letter Template:IPAalink as Template:Angbr IPA (simultaneous Template:IPA and labial compression) or Template:Angbr IPA (Template:IPA modified with labial compression). The spread-lip diacritic Template:Angbr IPA may also be used with a rounded vowel letter Template:Angbr IPA as an ad hoc symbol, but 'spread' technically means unrounded.


Template:Open-mid vowel Template:Front vowel Template:Compressed vowel


Because front rounded vowels are assumed to have compression, and few descriptions cover the distinction, some of the following may actually have protrusion.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Asturian Some Template:Ill[2] Asturian language Template:IPA 'outside' Realization of Template:Angbr in the diphthong Template:Angbr. May also be realized as Template:IPAblink or Template:IPAblink.
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[3] Seil Template:IPA 'rope' May be transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA.[3]
NorthernTemplate:Sfnp I helfad Template:IPA 'I'd help' Allophone of Template:IPA before Template:IPA.Template:Sfnp
Breton All speakersTemplate:Sfnp Template:Example needed Short counterpart of Template:IPAslink.Template:Sfnp May be transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA.
Bas-LéonTemplate:Sfnp Template:Example needed Long; contrasts with the short open-mid Template:IPA and the long close-mid Template:IPAslink. Other speakers have only one mid front rounded vowel Template:IPAslink.Template:Sfnp
BuwalTemplate:Sfnp Template:IPA 'fine' Allophone of Template:IPA when adjacent to a labialized consonant.Template:Sfnp
Chinese Cantonese / cheung4 [tsʰœːŋ˩] 'long' See Cantonese phonology
Danish StandardTemplate:Sfnp gøre Template:IPA 'to do' Typically transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA. See Danish phonology
Dutch StandardTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp manoeuvre Template:Audio-IPA 'manoeuvre' Occurs only in a few loanwords.Template:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp See Dutch phonology
Some speakersTemplate:Sfnp parfum Template:IPA 'perfume' Nasalized; occurs only in a few loanwords and it is used mainly in southern accents. Often nativized as Template:IPA.Template:Sfnp See Dutch phonology
The Hague dialectTemplate:Sfnp uit Template:IPA 'out' Corresponds to Template:IPA in standard Dutch.Template:Sfnp See Dutch phonology
English General New ZealandTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp bird Template:IPA 'bird' May be mid Template:IPAblink instead. In broader varieties, it is close-mid or higher.Template:SfnpTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp Typically transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA. See New Zealand English phonology
ScouseTemplate:Sfnp Possible realization of the merged Template:Sc2Template:Sc2 vowel Template:IPA.Template:Sfnp
Southern WelshTemplate:Sfnp Also described as mid Template:IPAblinkTemplate:Sfnp and close-mid Template:IPAblink.Template:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp
General South AfricanTemplate:Sfnp go Template:IPA 'go' Some speakers. Can be a diphthong of the type Template:IPA~Template:IPA instead. Other South African varieties do not monophthongize. See South African English phonology
FaroeseTemplate:Sfnp høgt Template:IPA 'high' See Faroese phonology
FrenchTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp jeune Template:IPA 'young' See French phonology
Galician[4] semana Template:IPA ˈweek' Labialization of pre-tonic Template:IPA, which is usually realized as Template:IPA
German StandardTemplate:Sfnp Hölle Template:IPA 'hell' See Standard German phonology
Western Swiss accentsTemplate:Sfnp schön Template:IPA 'beautiful' Close-mid Template:IPAblink in other accents.Template:Sfnp See Standard German phonology
Limburgish Many dialectsTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp mäö Template:IPA 'sleeve' Central Template:IPAblink in Maastricht;Template:Sfnp the example word is from the Hasselt dialect.
Low GermanTemplate:Sfnp söss / zös Template:IPA 'six'
LuxembourgishTemplate:Sfnp Interieur Template:IPA 'interior' Occurs only in loanwords.Template:Sfnp See Luxembourgish phonology
Saterland FrisianTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp bölkje Template:IPA 'to rear'
West Frisian HindeloopersTemplate:Sfnp Template:Example needed See West Frisian phonology
SúdwesthoekskTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp skoalle Template:IPA 'school'

Open-mid front protruded vowel

Template:Infobox IPA

Catford notesTemplate:Full citation needed that most languages with rounded front and back vowels use distinct types of labialization, protruded back vowels and compressed front vowels. However, a few, such as Scandinavian languages, have protruded front vowels. One Scandinavian language, Swedish, even contrasts the two types of rounding in front vowels (see near-close front rounded vowel, with Swedish examples of both types of rounding).

As there are no diacritics in the IPA to distinguish protruded and compressed rounding, an old diacritic for labialization, Template:Angbr IPA, will be used here as an ad hoc symbol for protruded front vowels. Another possible transcription is Template:Angbr IPA or Template:Angbr IPA (an open-mid front vowel modified by endolabialization), but it could be misread as a diphthong.

Acoustically, the sound is "between" the more typical compressed open-mid front vowel Template:IPA and the unrounded open-mid front vowel Template:IPAblink.


Template:Open-mid vowel Template:Front vowel Template:Protruded vowel


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
NorwegianTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp nøtt Template:IPA 'nut' The example word is from Urban East Norwegian, in which the vowel has also been described as mid central Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp See Norwegian phonology
Swedish Central StandardTemplate:SfnpTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp öra Template:Audio-IPA 'ear' Allophone of Template:IPA and most often also Template:IPA before Template:IPA.Template:SfnpTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp May be more open Template:IPA for younger speakers from Stockholm.Template:Sfnp See Swedish phonology
Younger Stockholm speakersTemplate:Sfnp köpa Template:IPA 'to buy' Higher Template:IPAblink for other speakers. See Swedish phonology


  1. Template:Vowel terminology
  2. García, Fernando Álvarez-Balbuena (2015-09-01). "Na frontera del asturllionés y el gallegoportugués: descripción y exame horiométricu de la fala de Fernidiellu (Forniella, Llión). Parte primera: fonética". Revista de Filoloxía Asturiana. 14 (14). ISSN 2341-1147. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Template:Harvcoltxt, cited in Template:Harvcoltxt
  4. Freixeiro Mato, X. Ramón. (2006-). Gramática da lingua galega (2. ed.). [Vigo, Spain]: Edicions A Nosa Terra. ISBN 84-8341-060-5. OCLC 213259857.  Check date values in: |date= (help)


External links

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