Open-mid back unrounded vowel

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Template:Short description Template:Infobox IPA Template:IPA vowels

The open-mid back unrounded vowel, or low-mid back unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is Template:Angbr IPA, graphically a rotated lowercase "v" (called a turned V but created as a small-capital Template:Angbr without the crossbar). Both the symbol and the sound are commonly referred to as either a wedge, a caret, or a hat. In transcriptions for English, this symbol is commonly used for the near-open central unrounded vowel, and in transcriptions for Danish, it is used for the (somewhat mid-centralized) open back rounded vowel.

Features

Template:Open-mid vowel Template:Back vowel Template:Unrounded vowel

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Catalan Solsonès[2] tarda Template:IPA 'afternoon' Realization of final unstressed Template:IPA
English Cape TownTemplate:Sfnp lot Template:IPA 'lot' It corresponds to a weakly rounded Template:IPAblink in all other South African dialects. See South African English phonology
NatalTemplate:Sfnp
CardiffTemplate:Sfnp thought Template:IPA 'thought' For some speakers it may be rounded and closer. See English phonology
General South AfricanTemplate:Sfnp no Template:IPA 'no' May be a diphthong Template:IPA instead.Template:Sfnp See South African English phonology
General AmericanTemplate:Sfnp gut Template:Audio-IPA 'gut' In most dialects, fronted to Template:IPAblink, or fronted and lowered to Template:IPAblink. See English phonology and Northern Cities Vowel Shift
Inland Northern American[3]
Multicultural LondonTemplate:Sfnp
NewfoundlandTemplate:Sfnp
Northern East AnglianTemplate:Sfnp
PhiladelphiaTemplate:Sfnp
ScottishTemplate:Sfnp
Some Estuary English speakersTemplate:Sfnp
French Picardy[4] alors Template:IPA 'so' Corresponding to Template:IPA in standard French.
German Chemnitz dialectTemplate:Sfnp machen Template:IPA 'to do' Allophone of Template:IPA (which phonetically are central Template:IPA)Template:Sfnp before and after Template:IPA. Exact backness varies; it is most posterior before Template:IPA.Template:Sfnp
HaidaTemplate:Sfnp ḵwaáay Template:IPA 'the rock' Allophone of Template:IPA (sometimes also Template:IPA) after uvular and epiglottal consonants.Template:Sfnp
Irish Ulster dialectTemplate:Sfnp ola Template:IPA 'oil' See Irish phonology
KaingangTemplate:Sfnp Template:IPA 'mark' Varies between back Template:IPA and central Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp
KensiuTemplate:Sfnp Template:IPA 'stream'
KoreanTemplate:Sfnp / neo Template:IPA 'you' See Korean phonology
Lillooet Template:Example needed Retracted counterpart of Template:IPA.
Mah MeriTemplate:Sfnp Template:Example needed Allophone of Template:IPA; can be mid central Template:IPAblink or close-mid back Template:IPAblink instead.Template:Sfnp
Oʼodham Pima corresponds to [ɨ] in Papago.
Russian Standard Saint PetersburgTemplate:Sfnp голова Template:IPA 'head' Corresponds to Template:IPAblink in standard Moscow pronunciation;Template:Sfnp occurs mostly immediately before stressed syllables. See Russian phonology
TamilTemplate:Sfnp Template:Example needed Nasalized. Phonetic realization of the sequence Template:IPA, may be Template:IPAblink or Template:IPAblink instead.Template:Sfnp See Tamil phonology

Before World War II, the Template:IPA of Received Pronunciation was phonetically close to a back vowel Template:IPA; this sound has since shifted forward towards Template:IPAblink (a near-open central unrounded vowel). Daniel Jones reports his speech (southern British), as having an advanced back vowel Template:IPA between his central Template:IPA and back Template:IPA; however, he also reports that other southern speakers had a lower and even more advanced vowel approaching cardinal Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp In American English varieties, e.g. the West and Midwest, and the urban South, the typical phonetic realization of the phoneme Template:IPA is an open-mid central Template:IPAblink.Template:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp Truly backed variants of Template:IPA that are phonetically Template:IPA can occur in Inland Northern American English, Newfoundland English, Philadelphia English, some African-American Englishes, and (old-fashioned) white Southern English in coastal plain and Piedmont areas.Template:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp Despite this, the letter Template:Angbr IPA is still commonly used to indicate this phoneme, even in the more common varieties with central variants Template:IPAblink or Template:IPAblink. This may be due to both tradition as well as the fact that some other dialects retain the older pronunciation.Template:Sfnp

Notes

References

External links

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