Near-open front unrounded vowel

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Template:Merge Template:Short description Template:Infobox IPA Template:IPA vowels

The near-open front unrounded vowel, or near-low front unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is Template:Angbr IPA, a lowercase of the Template:Angbr ligature. Both the symbol and the sound are commonly referred to as "ash".

The rounded counterpart of Template:IPA, the near-open front rounded vowel (for which the IPA provides no separate symbol) has been reported to occur allophonically in Danish;[2][3] see open front rounded vowel for more information.

In practice, Template:Angbr IPA is sometimes used to represent the open front unrounded vowel; see the introduction to that page for more information.

In IPA transcriptions of Hungarian and Valencian, this vowel is typically written with Template:Angbr IPA. In the case of Danish, Template:Angbr IPA is often used for the near-open vowel as Template:Angbr IPA is used for the open-mid front unrounded vowel.


Template:Near-open vowel Template:Front vowel Template:Unrounded vowel


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans Standard[4] perd Template:IPA 'horse' Allophone of Template:IPA, in some dialects, before Template:IPA. See Afrikaans phonology
Arabic Standard[5] كتاب Template:Audio-IPA 'book' Allophone of Template:IPA in the environment of plain labial and coronal consonants as well as Template:IPA (depending on the speaker's accent). See Arabic phonology
Bashkir[6] йәй / yäy Template:Audio-IPA 'summer'
Catalan Majorcan[7] tesi Template:IPA 'thesis' Main realization of Template:IPA. See Catalan phonology
Danish Standard[2][8] dansk Template:IPA 'Danish' Most often transcribed in IPA with Template:IPAalink – the way it is realized by certain older or upper-class speakers.[9] See Danish phonology
Dutch[10] pen Template:IPA 'pen' Allophone of Template:IPA before Template:IPA and the velarized or pharyngealized allophone of Template:IPA. In non-standard accents this allophone is generalized to other positions, where Template:IPAblink is used in Standard Dutch.[11] See Dutch phonology
English Cultivated New Zealand[12] cat Template:Audio-IPA 'cat' Higher in other New Zealand varieties. See New Zealand English phonology
General American[13] See English phonology
Conservative Received Pronunciation[14] Fully open Template:IPAblink in contemporary RP.[14] See English phonology
Estonian[15] väle Template:IPA 'agile' Near-front.[15] See Estonian phonology
Finnish[16] mäki Template:IPA 'hill' See Finnish phonology
French Parisian[17] bain Template:IPA 'bath' Nasalized; typically transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA. See French phonology
Quebec[18] ver Template:IPA 'worm' Allophone of Template:IPA before Template:IPA or in open syllables, and of Template:IPA in closed syllables.[18] See Quebec French phonology
German Standard Austrian[19] oder Template:IPA 'or' Used by some speakers instead of Template:IPAblink.[19] See Standard German phonology
West Central German accents[20] Used instead of Template:IPAblink.[20] See Standard German phonology
Northern accents[21] alles Template:IPA 'everything' Lower and often also more back in other accents.[21] See Standard German phonology
Western Swiss accents[22] spät Template:IPA 'late' Open-mid Template:IPAblink or close-mid Template:IPAblink in other accents; contrasts with the open-mid Template:IPAslink.[23] See Standard German phonology
Greek Macedonia[24] γάτα/gáta Template:IPA 'cat' See Modern Greek phonology
Pontic[25] καλάθια/kaláthia Template:IPA 'baskets'
Hungarian[26] nem Template:IPA 'no' Typically transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA. See Hungarian phonology
Kurdish Sorani (Central) گاڵته Template:IPA 'joke' Equal to Palewani (Southern) front Template:IPAblink. See Kurdish phonology
Lakon[27] rävräv Template:IPA 'evening'
Limburgish[28][29][30] twelf Template:IPA 'twelve' Front[29][30] or near-front,[28] depending on the dialect. The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect, in which the vowel is near-front.
Luxembourgish[31] Käpp Template:IPA 'heads' See Luxembourgish phonology
Norwegian Urban East[32][33] lær Template:IPA 'leather' See Norwegian phonology
Persian[34][35] هشت [hæʃt] 'eight'
Portuguese Some dialects[36] pedra Template:IPA 'stone' Stressed vowel. In other dialects closer Template:IPAslink. See Portuguese phonology
Some European speakers[37] também Template:IPA 'also' Stressed vowel, allophone of nasal vowel Template:IPA.
Romanian Bukovinian dialectTemplate:Sfnp piele Template:IPA 'skin' Corresponds to Template:IPA in standard Romanian. Also identified in some Central Transylvanian sub-dialects.Template:Sfnp See Romanian phonology
Russian[38][39] пять Template:Audio-IPA 'five' Allophone of Template:IPA between palatalized consonants. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian Zeta-Raška dialectTemplate:Sfn дан/dan Template:IPA 'day' Regional reflex of Proto-Slavic *ь and *ъ. Sometimes nasalised.Template:Sfn
Sinhala[40] ඇය Template:IPA 'she'
Slovak Some speakers[41] väzy Template:IPA 'ligaments' Many speakers pronounce it the same as Template:IPAblink. See Slovak phonology
Swedish Central Standard[42][43][44] ära Template:Audio-IPA 'hono(u)r' Allophone of Template:IPA before Template:IPA. See Swedish phonology
Stockholm[44] läsa Template:IPA 'to read' Realization of Template:IPA for younger speakers. Higher Template:IPA for other speakers
Turkish[45] sen Template:IPA 'you' Allophone of Template:IPA before syllable-final Template:IPA. In a limited number of words (but not before Template:IPA), it is in free variation with Template:IPAblink.[45] See Turkish phonology

See also



External links

Template:IPA navigation