Near-close near-front rounded vowel

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Template:Short description Template:Infobox IPA Template:IPA vowels

The near-close front rounded vowel, or near-high front rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.

The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is Template:Angbr IPA, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is Y.

Handbook of the International Phonetic Association defines Template:IPA as a mid-centralized (lowered and centralized) close front rounded vowel (transcribed Template:IPA or Template:IPA), and the current official IPA name of the vowel transcribed with the symbol Template:Angbr IPA is near-close near-front rounded vowel.Template:Sfnp However, acoustic analysis of cardinal vowels as produced by Daniel Jones and John C. Wells has shown that basically all cardinal front rounded vowels (so not just Template:IPAblink but also Template:IPA) are near-front (or front-central) in their articulation, so Template:IPA may be just a lowered cardinal Template:IPAblink (Template:IPA), a vowel intermediate between cardinal Template:IPAblink and cardinal Template:IPAblink.[2] In many languages that contrast close, near-close and close-mid front rounded vowels there is no appreciable difference in backness between them.Template:SfnpTemplate:SfnpTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp In some transcriptions, this vowel is transcribed with Template:Angbr IPA[3] or Template:Angbr IPA.[4] When that is the case, this article transcribes it with the symbols Template:Angbr IPA (a lowered Template:Angbr IPA) and Template:Angbr IPA (a raised Template:Angbr IPA), respectively.

In some languages however, Template:Angbr IPA is used to transcribed a vowel that is as low as close-mid, though it still fits the definition of a lowered and centralized (or just lowered) cardinal Template:IPAblink. It occurs in German Standard German as well as some dialects of English (such as Estuary),Template:SfnpTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp and it can be transcribed with the symbol Template:Angbr IPA (a lowered Template:Angbr IPA) in narrow transcription. For the close-mid front rounded vowel that is not usually transcribed with the symbol Template:Angbr IPA (or Template:Angbr IPA), see close-mid front rounded vowel.

In most languages this rounded vowel is pronounced with compressed lips (in an exolabial manner). However, in a few cases the lips are protruded (in an endolabial manner). This is the case with Swedish, which contrasts the two types of rounding.

Near-close front compressed vowel

The near-close front compressed vowel is typically transcribed in IPA simply as Template:Angbr IPA, and that is the convention used in this article. There is no dedicated diacritic for compression in the IPA. However, the compression of the lips can be shown with the letter Template:IPAalink as Template:Angbr IPA (simultaneous Template:IPA and labial compression) or Template:Angbr IPA (Template:IPA modified with labial compression). The spread-lip diacritic Template:Angbr IPA may also be used with a rounded vowel letter Template:Angbr IPA as an ad hoc symbol, though technically 'spread' means unrounded.

The close-mid front compressed vowel can be transcribed Template:Angbr IPA, Template:Angbr IPA or Template:Angbr IPA.

Features

Template:Near-close vowel Template:Front vowel Template:Compressed vowel

Occurrence

Because front rounded vowels are assumed to have compression, and few descriptions cover the distinction, some of the following may actually have protrusion.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Bashkir дүрт / dürt Template:Audio-IPA 'four'
Bavarian NorthernTemplate:Sfnp vill Template:IPA 'much' Allophone of Template:IPA before Template:IPA.Template:Sfnp
BuwalTemplate:Sfnp Template:IPA 'bitter' Palatalized allophone of Template:IPA when adjacent to a labialized consonant.Template:Sfnp
Chinese ShanghaineseTemplate:Sfnp / koe Template:IPA 'liver' Realization of Template:IPA in open syllables and Template:IPA in closed syllables. Near-close Template:IPA in the former case, close-mid Template:IPA in the latter.Template:Sfnp
Danish Standard[5] købe Template:IPA 'buy' Also described as close-mid Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp See Danish phonology
Dutch StandardTemplate:Sfnp nu Template:IPA 'now' Also transcribed as close front Template:IPAblinkTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp and, in the Standard Northern accent, as close central Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp Typically transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA. See Dutch phonology
English EstuaryTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp foot Template:IPA 'foot' Possible realization of Template:IPA and Template:IPA. In the former case, the height varies between near-close Template:IPA and close-mid Template:IPA.Template:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp
Multicultural LondonTemplate:Sfnp Possible realization of Template:IPA.Template:Sfnp
Rural white Southern AmericanTemplate:Sfnp Template:IPA Can be central Template:IPAblink instead.Template:Sfnp
West CountryTemplate:Sfnp Template:IPA Possible realization of Template:IPA and Template:IPA.Template:Sfnp
New ZealandTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp nurse Template:IPA 'nurse' Possible realization of Template:IPA (and also Template:IPA).Template:SfnpTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp See New Zealand English phonology
Ulster[6] mule Template:IPA 'mule' Short allophone of Template:IPA; occurs only after Template:IPA.[6] See English phonology
FaroeseTemplate:Sfnp krúss Template:IPA 'mug' See Faroese phonology
French ParisianTemplate:Sfnp tu Template:IPA 'you' Also described as close Template:IPAblink;Template:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp typically transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA. See French phonology
QuebecTemplate:Sfnp lune Template:IPA 'moon' Allophone of Template:IPA in closed syllables.Template:Sfnp See Quebec French phonology
German StandardTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp schützen Template:IPA 'protect' Close-mid; it may be as high as Template:IPAblink for some speakers.Template:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp See Standard German phonology
Some speakersTemplate:Sfnp schwimmen Template:IPA 'to swim' Allophone of Template:IPA before labial consonants. Used by some speakers in Northern and Central Germany.Template:Sfnp See Standard German phonology
HungarianTemplate:Sfnp üt Template:Audio-IPA 'to hit' Typically transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA. See Hungarian phonology
IcelandicTemplate:Sfnp vinur Template:IPA 'friend' Close-mid;Template:Sfnp also described as central Template:IPAblink.[7] See Icelandic phonology
Kazakh жүр Template:IPA 'go'
Kurdish d Template:IPA 'yesterday' Allophone of /weː/ before consonant.
Low GermanTemplate:Sfnp lütt / lut Template:IPA 'little'
NorwegianTemplate:Sfnp nytt Template:IPA 'new' The example word is from Urban East Norwegian, in which the vowel varies between compressed Template:IPA and protruded Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp Its height has been variously described as near-close Template:IPATemplate:Sfnp and close Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp See Norwegian phonology.
Ripuarian Kerkrade dialectTemplate:Sfnp kümme Template:IPA 'to moan' May be transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA.
Saterland FrisianTemplate:Sfnp röögje Template:IPA 'to rain' Phonetic realization of Template:IPA and Template:IPA. Near-close Template:IPA in the former case, close-mid Template:IPA in the latter. Phonetically, the latter is nearly identical to Template:IPA (Template:IPAblink).Template:Sfnp
ScotsTemplate:Sfnp buit Template:IPA 'boot' May be central Template:IPAblink instead.Template:Sfnp
Swedish Central StandardTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp ut Template:IPA 'out' Often realized as a sequence Template:IPA or Template:IPATemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp (hear the word: Template:Audio-IPA). The height has been variously described as near-close Template:IPATemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp and close Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp Typically transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA; it is central Template:IPAblink in other dialects. See Swedish phonology
TurkishTemplate:Sfnp atasözü Template:IPA 'proverb' Allophone of Template:IPA described variously as "word-final"Template:Sfnp and "occurring in final open syllable of a phrase".Template:Sfnp See Turkish phonology
TurkmenTemplate:Sfnp Türkmençe Template:IPA 'Turkmen'
Wymysorys[8] büwa Template:IPA 'boys'

Near-close front protruded vowel

Template:Infobox IPA Catford notesTemplate:Full citation needed that most languages with rounded front and back vowels use distinct types of labialization, protruded back vowels and compressed front vowels. However, a few, such as Scandinavian languages, have protruded front vowels. One of them, Swedish, even contrasts the two types of rounding in front vowels as well as height and duration.Template:Sfnp

As there are no diacritics in the IPA to distinguish protruded and compressed rounding, the old diacritic for labialization, Template:Angbr IPA, will be used here as an ad hoc symbol for protruded front vowels. Another possible transcription is Template:Angbr IPA or Template:Angbr IPA (a near-close front vowel modified by endolabialization), but that could be misread as a diphthong.

The close-mid front protruded vowel can be transcribed Template:Angbr IPA, Template:Angbr IPA or Template:Angbr IPA.

For the close-mid front protruded vowel that is not usually transcribed with the symbol Template:Angbr IPA (or Template:Angbr IPA), see close-mid front protruded vowel.

Acoustically, this sound is "between" the more typical compressed near-close front vowel Template:IPA and the unrounded near-close front vowel Template:IPAblink.

Features

Template:Near-close vowel Template:Front vowel Template:Protruded vowel

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
[[Kurdish languages|KurdishTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp]] Kurmanji (Northern) xö Template:IPA 'sleep' Equal to Palewani (Southern) Template:IPAblink. See Kurdish phonology
NorwegianTemplate:Sfnp nytt Template:IPA 'new' The example word is from Urban East Norwegian, in which the vowel varies between protruded Template:IPA and compressed Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp Its height has been variously described as near-close Template:IPATemplate:Sfnp and close Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp See Norwegian phonology.
Swedish Central StandardTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp ylle Template:Audio-IPA 'wool' The height has been variously described as close-mid Template:IPA,Template:Sfnp near-close Template:IPATemplate:Sfnp and close Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp See Swedish phonology

Notes

  1. Template:Vowel terminology
  2. Geoff Lindsey (2013) The vowel space, Speech Talk
  3. For example by Template:Harvcoltxt and Template:Harvcoltxt.
  4. For example by Template:Harvcoltxt; Template:Harvcoltxt, cited in Template:Harvcoltxt and Template:Harvcoltxt.
  5. Template:Harvcoltxt, cited in Template:Harvcoltxt.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Jilka, Matthias. "Irish English and Ulster English" (PDF). Stuttgart: Institut für Linguistik/Anglistik, University of Stuttgart. p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2014. 
  7. Template:Harvcoltxt, cited in Template:Harvcoltxt
  8. Jarosław Weckwerth. "The pure vowels (monophthongs) of Wilamowicean – spectral characteristics" (PDF). pp. 1–2, 5. 

References

External links

Template:IPA navigation