Near-close near-back rounded vowel

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Template:Short description Template:Infobox IPA Template:IPA vowels

The near-close back rounded vowel, or near-high back rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some vocal languages. The IPA symbol that represents this sound is Template:Angbr IPA. It is informally called "horseshoe u". Prior to 1989, there was an alternate IPA symbol for this sound, Template:Angbr IPA, called "closed omega"; use of this symbol is no longer sanctioned by the IPA.Template:Sfnp In Americanist phonetic notation, the symbol Template:Angbr IPA (a small capital U) is used. Sometimes, especially in broad transcription, this vowel is transcribed with a simpler symbol Template:Angbr IPA, which technically represents the close back rounded vowel.

Handbook of the International Phonetic Association defines Template:IPA as a mid-centralized (lowered and centralized) close back rounded vowel (transcribed Template:IPA or Template:IPA), and the current official IPA name of the vowel transcribed with the symbol Template:Angbr IPA is near-close near-back rounded vowel.Template:Sfnp However, some languages have the close-mid near-back rounded vowel, a vowel that is somewhat lower than the canonical value of Template:IPA, though it still fits the definition of a mid-centralized Template:IPAblink. It occurs in some dialects of English (such as General American and Geordie)Template:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp as well as some other languages (such as Maastrichtian Limburgish).Template:Sfnp It can be transcribed with the symbol Template:Angbr IPA (a lowered Template:Angbr IPA) in narrow transcription. For the close-mid (near-)back rounded vowel that is not usually transcribed with the symbol Template:Angbr IPA (or Template:Angbr IPA), see close-mid back rounded vowel.

In some other languages (such as Bengali and Luxembourgish)Template:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp as well as some dialects of English (such as Scottish)Template:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp there is a fully back near-close rounded vowel (a sound between cardinal Template:IPAblink and Template:IPAblink), which can be transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA, Template:Angbr IPA or Template:Angbr IPA.

A few languages also have the near-close back unrounded vowel (which does not have a separate IPA symbol) in their inventory.

Near-close back protruded vowel

The near-close back protruded vowel is typically transcribed in IPA simply as Template:Angbr IPA, and that is the convention used in this article. As there is no dedicated diacritic for protrusion in the IPA, symbol for the near-close back rounded vowel with an old diacritic for labialization, Template:Angbr IPA, can be used as an ad hoc symbol Template:Angbr IPA for the near-close back protruded vowel. Another possible transcription is Template:Angbr IPA or Template:Angbr IPA (a near-close back vowel modified by endolabialization), but this could be misread as a diphthong.

The close-mid near-back protruded vowel can be transcribed Template:Angbr IPA or Template:Angbr IPA, whereas the fully back near-close protruded vowel can be transcribed Template:Angbr IPA, Template:Angbr IPA or Template:Angbr IPA.

Features

Template:Near-close vowel Template:Back vowel Template:Protruded vowel

Occurrence

Because back rounded vowels are assumed to have protrusion, and few descriptions cover the distinction, some of the following may actually have compression.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans StandardTemplate:Sfnp Botha Template:IPA 'Botha' Close-mid. Allophone of Template:IPA in less stressed words, in stressed syllables of polysyllabic words and word-finally when unstressed. In the second case, it is in free variation with the diphthongal realization Template:IPA.Template:Sfnp See Afrikaans phonology
AssameseTemplate:Sfnp পুঁত Template:IPA 'to bury' Close-mid;Template:Sfnp also described as open Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp
BengaliTemplate:Sfnp তুমি Template:IPA 'you' Fully back;Template:Sfnp typically transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA. See Bengali phonology
BurmeseTemplate:Sfnp [orthographic
form needed
]
Template:IPA 'smooth' Allophone of Template:IPA in syllables closed by a glottal stop and when nasalized.Template:Sfnp
Chinese MandarinTemplate:Sfnp / hóng Template:Audio-IPA 'red' Fully back; height varies between mid and close depending on the speaker. See Standard Chinese phonology
ShanghaineseTemplate:Sfnp Template:IPA 'melon' The height varies between close and close-mid; contrasts with a close to close-mid back compressed vowel.Template:Sfnp
Danish StandardTemplate:Sfnp mave Template:IPA 'stomach' Phonetic realization of the sequence Template:IPA.Template:Sfnp See Danish phonology
Dutch Standard NorthernTemplate:Sfnp oren Template:IPA 'ears' Allophone of Template:IPA before Template:IPA. Can be a centering diphthong Template:IPA instead, especially before coda Template:IPA. See Dutch phonology
RandstadTemplate:Sfnp
Some speakersTemplate:Sfnp hok Template:IPA 'den' Contrasts with Template:IPAslink in certain words, but many speakers have only one vowel Template:IPAslink.Template:Sfnp See Dutch phonology
English AustralianTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp hook Template:IPA 'hook' Also described as close back Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp See Australian English phonology
IrishTemplate:Sfnp
WelshTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp In Cardiff, it is advanced and lowered to Template:IPAblink, often also with unrounding to Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp
CockneyTemplate:Sfnp Template:IPA Sometimes fronted to Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp
Conservative Received PronunciationTemplate:Sfnp Template:IPA Often lowered and advanced to Template:IPAblink, or unrounded to Template:IPAblink. See English phonology
Multicultural LondonTemplate:Sfnp May be front Template:IPAblink instead.Template:Sfnp
New ZealandTemplate:Sfnp The height varies between near-close and close-mid; it is unrounded and advanced to Template:IPA in some lexical items.Template:Sfnp See New Zealand English phonology
NorfolkTemplate:Sfnp
Some Estuary speakersTemplate:Sfnp Often advanced to Template:IPA, or advanced and lowered to Template:IPA.Template:Sfnp
General AmericanTemplate:Sfnp Template:IPA Close-mid.Template:SfnpTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp
GeordieTemplate:Sfnp
Southern MichiganTemplate:Sfnp
Northern EnglandTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp Template:IPA
ScottishTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp go Template:IPA 'go' Fully back.Template:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp
French QuebecTemplate:Sfnp foule Template:IPA 'crowd' Allophone of Template:IPA in closed syllables.Template:Sfnp See Quebec French phonology
German StandardTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp Stunde Template:Audio-IPA 'hour' The quality has been variously described as near-close back Template:IPATemplate:Sfnp and close-mid near-back Template:IPA.Template:Sfnp For some speakers, it may be as high as Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp See Standard German phonology
HindustaniTemplate:Sfnp गुलाब/گلاب Template:IPA 'rose' See Hindustani phonology
HungarianTemplate:Sfnp ujj Template:IPA 'finger' Typically transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA. See Hungarian phonology
Irish MunsterTemplate:Sfnp dubh Template:IPA 'black' Allophone of Template:IPA between broad consonants.Template:Sfnp See Irish phonology
Italian Central-Southern accentsTemplate:Sfnp ombra Template:IPA 'shade' Fully back; local realization of Template:IPA.Template:Sfnp See Italian phonology
[[Kurdish languages|KurdishTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp]] Kurmanji (Northern) gul Template:IPA 'flower' See Kurdish phonology
Sorani (Central) گول
Palewani (Southern)
Latin Classical puella Template:IPA 'girl'
Limburgish Some dialectsTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp póp Template:IPA 'doll' Close-mid in the Maastrichtian dialect.Template:Sfnp The example word is from that dialect.
LuxembourgishTemplate:Sfnp Sprooch Template:IPA 'language' Fully back.Template:Sfnp Typically transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA. See Luxembourgish phonology
Pashayi Lower Darai Nur dialectTemplate:Sfnp صُر Template:IPA 'sun' Close-mid.Template:Sfnp
Portuguese BrazilianTemplate:Sfnp pulo Template:IPA 'leap' Reduction and neutralization of unstressed Template:IPA; can be voiceless. See Portuguese phonology
RussianTemplate:Sfnp сухой Template:Audio-IPA 'dry' Unstressed allophone of Template:IPA.Template:Sfnp See Russian phonology
Saterland FrisianTemplate:Sfnp Roop Template:IPA 'rope' Phonetic realization of Template:IPA and Template:IPA. Near-close back Template:IPA in the former case, close-mid near-back Template:IPA in the latter. Phonetically, the latter is nearly identical to Template:IPA (Template:IPAblink).Template:Sfnp
Scots Glenoe dialectTemplate:Sfnp go Template:IPA 'go' Fully back.Template:Sfnp
Rathlin dialectTemplate:Sfnp
SinhaleseTemplate:Sfnp Template:Example needed Template:IPA 'much' Only weakly rounded;Template:Sfnp typically transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA.
SlovakTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp ruka Template:IPA 'arm' Typically fully back.Template:Sfnp See Slovak phonology
SothoTemplate:Sfnp potso Template:IPA 'query' Fully back; contrasts close, near-close and close-mid back rounded vowels.Template:Sfnp See Sotho phonology
Spanish Eastern AndalusianTemplate:Sfnp tus Template:IPA 'your' (pl.) Fully back. Corresponds to Template:IPAblink in other dialects, but in these dialects they are distinct. See Spanish phonology
MurcianTemplate:Sfnp
TurkishTemplate:Sfnp buzlu Template:IPA 'icy' Allophone of Template:IPA described variously as "word-final"Template:Sfnp and "occurring in final open syllable of a phrase".Template:Sfnp See Turkish phonology
UkrainianTemplate:Sfnp Мусій [mʊˈsij] 'Musiy' (name) See Ukrainian phonology
YorubaTemplate:Sfnp Template:Example needed Near-back or back; typically transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA. It is nasalized, and may be close Template:IPA instead.Template:Sfnp

Near-close back compressed vowel

Template:Infobox IPA

Some languages, such as Norwegian, are found with a near-close back vowel that has a distinct type of rounding, called compressed or exolabial.

There is no dedicated diacritic for compression in the IPA. However, the compression of the lips can be shown with the letter Template:IPAalink as Template:Angbr IPA (simultaneous Template:IPA and labial compression) or Template:Angbr IPA (Template:IPA modified with labial compression). The spread-lip diacritic Template:Angbr IPA may also be used with a rounded vowel letter Template:Angbr IPA as an ad hoc symbol, though technically 'spread' means unrounded.

Only the Shanghainese dialect is known to contrast this with the more typical protruded (endolabial) near-close back vowel, although the height of both of these vowels varies from close to close-mid.Template:Sfnp

The fully back variant of the near-close compressed vowel can be transcribed Template:Angbr IPA, Template:Angbr IPA or Template:Angbr IPA.

Features

Template:Near-close vowel Template:Back vowel Template:Compressed vowel

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Chinese ShanghaineseTemplate:Sfnp Template:IPA 'capital' The height varies between close and close-mid; contrasts with a close to close-mid back protruded vowel.Template:Sfnp
NorwegianTemplate:Sfnp[2] ond Template:IPA 'evil' The example word is from Urban East Norwegian, in which the vowel has been variously described as near-close back Template:IPATemplate:Sfnp and close back Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp See Norwegian phonology
Swedish Central StandardTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp ort Template:Audio-IPA 'locality' The quality has been variously described as near-close near-back Template:IPA,Template:Sfnp near-close back Template:IPATemplate:Sfnp and close back Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp See Swedish phonology

Notes

  1. Template:Vowel terminology
  2. While Template:Harvcoltxt does not describe the exact type of rounding of this vowel, some other sources (e.g. Template:Harvcoltxt and Template:Harvcoltxt) state explicitly that it is compressed.

References

External links

Template:IPA navigation