Close-mid front unrounded vowel

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Template:Short description

Template:Infobox IPA Template:IPA vowels

The close-mid front unrounded vowel, or high-mid front unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is Template:Angbr IPA.

For the close-mid front unrounded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol Template:Angbr IPA or Template:Angbr IPA, see near-close front unrounded vowel. If the usual symbol is Template:Angbr IPA, the vowel is listed here.

There is also the mid front unrounded vowel (Template:Audio) in some languages, which is slightly lower. It is normally written Template:Angbr IPA, but if precision is required, diacritics may be used, such as Template:Angbr IPA or Template:Angbr IPA (the former, indicating lowering, being more common).

For many of the languages that have only one phonemic front unrounded vowel in the mid-vowel area (neither close nor open), the vowel is pronounced as a true mid vowel and is phonetically distinct from either a close-mid or open-mid vowel. Examples are Basque, Spanish, Romanian, Japanese, Turkish, Finnish, Greek, Hejazi Arabic, Serbo-Croatian and Korean (Seoul dialect). A number of dialects of English also have such a mid front vowel. However, there is no general predisposition. Igbo and Egyptian Arabic, for example, have a close-mid Template:IPA, and Bulgarian has an open-mid Template:IPA, but none of these languages have another phonemic mid front vowel.

Kensiu, spoken in Malaysia and Thailand, is claimed to be unique in having true-mid vowels that are phonemically distinct from both close-mid and open-mid vowels, without differences in other parameters such as backness or roundedness.[2]


Template:Close-mid vowel Template:Front vowel Template:Unrounded vowel


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans StandardTemplate:Sfnp bed Template:IPA 'bed' Typically transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA. The height varies between close-mid Template:IPA and mid Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp See Afrikaans phonology
Arabic HejaziTemplate:Sfnp بـيـت Template:IPA 'home' Mid.Template:Sfnp See Hejazi Arabic phonology
Azerbaijani ge [ɟeˈd͡ʒæ] 'night'
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[3] Template:Example needed
BretonTemplate:Sfnp Template:Example needed Unstressed Template:IPA can be mid Template:IPAblink or close-mid Template:IPAblink instead.Template:Sfnp
CatalanTemplate:Sfnp més Template:IPA 'more' See Catalan phonology
Chinese MandarinTemplate:Sfnp / Template:Audio-IPA 'also' Mid.Template:Sfnp See Standard Chinese phonology
ShanghaineseTemplate:Sfnp Template:IPA 'should' Near-front; realization of Template:IPA, which appears only in open syllables. Phonetically, it is nearly identical to Template:IPA (Template:IPAblink), which appears only in closed syllables.Template:Sfnp
Danish StandardTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp hæl Template:IPA 'heel' Typically transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA. See Danish phonology
Dutch BelgianTemplate:Sfnp vreemd Template:IPA 'strange' In the Netherlands often diphthongized to Template:IPA. See Dutch phonology
Some speakersTemplate:Sfnp zet Template:IPA 'shove' (n.) Open-mid Template:IPAblink in Standard Dutch.Template:Sfnp See Dutch phonology
English AustralianTemplate:Sfnp bed Template:IPA 'bed' See Australian English phonology
Conservative Received Pronunciation Mid; often realized as open-mid in contemporary RP. See English phonology
New ZealandTemplate:Sfnp The height varies from near-close in broad varieties to mid in the Cultivated variety.Template:Sfnp See New Zealand English phonology
General AmericanTemplate:Sfnp may Template:IPA 'may' Most often a closing diphthong Template:IPA.Template:Sfnp
General IndianTemplate:Sfnp
General PakistaniTemplate:Sfnp Can be a diphthong Template:IPA instead, depending on speaker.
Ulster[4] Pronounced Template:IPA in Belfast.
Some Cardiff speakersTemplate:Sfnp square Template:IPA 'square' More often open-mid Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp
YorkshireTemplate:Sfnp play Template:IPA 'play'
ScottishTemplate:Sfnp bit Template:IPA 'bit' Near-front,Template:Sfnp may be Template:IPAblink (also Template:IPAblink) instead for other speakers.
CockneyTemplate:Sfnp bird Template:IPA 'bird' Near-front; occasional realization of Template:IPA. It can be rounded Template:IPAblink or, more often, unrounded central Template:IPAblink instead.Template:Sfnp Typically transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA.
EstonianTemplate:Sfnp keha Template:IPA 'body' See Estonian phonology
FinnishTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp menen Template:IPA 'I go' Mid.Template:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp See Finnish phonology
FrenchTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp beauté Template:IPA 'beauty' See French phonology
German StandardTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp Seele Template:Audio-IPA 'soul' See Standard German phonology
Many speakersTemplate:Sfnp Jäger Template:IPA 'hunter' Outcome of the Template:IPA merger found universally in Northern Germany, Eastern Germany and Eastern Austria (often even in formal speech) and in some other regions.Template:Sfnp See Standard German phonology
Southern accentsTemplate:Sfnp Bett Template:IPA 'bed' Common realization of Template:IPA in Southern Germany, Switzerland and Austria.Template:Sfnp See Standard German phonology
Swabian accentTemplate:Sfnp Contrasts with the open-mid Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp See Standard German phonology
Bernese dialectTemplate:Sfnp rède Template:IPA 'to speak' Typically transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA. See Bernese German phonology
Greek Modern StandardTemplate:Sfnp πες / pes Template:IPA 'say!' See Modern Greek phonology
HebrewTemplate:Sfnp כן Template:IPA 'yes' Hebrew vowels are not shown in the script, see Niqqud and Modern Hebrew phonology
HungarianTemplate:Sfnp hét Template:IPA 'seven' Also described as mid Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp See Hungarian phonology
IbibioTemplate:Sfnp Template:IPA 'look' Mid.Template:Sfnp
IcelandicTemplate:Sfnp kenna Template:IPA 'to teach' Typically transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA. The long allophone is often diphthongized to Template:IPA.Template:Sfnp See Icelandic phonology
Italian StandardTemplate:Sfnp stelle Template:IPA 'stars' See Italian phonology
StandardTemplate:Sfnp crederci Template:IPA 'to believe' Common realization of the unstressed Template:IPA.Template:Sfnp See Italian phonology
Northern accentsTemplate:Sfnp penso Template:IPA 'I think' Common realization of Template:IPA.Template:Sfnp See Italian phonology
JapaneseTemplate:Sfnp 笑み Template:Audio-IPA 'smile' Mid.Template:Sfnp See Japanese phonology
JeberoTemplate:Sfnp Template:IPA 'bat' Near-front; possible realization of Template:IPA.Template:Sfnp
Limburgish Most dialectsTemplate:SfnpTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp leef Template:IPA 'dear' The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.
MaastrichtianTemplate:Sfnp bèd Template:IPA 'bed' Typically transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA.
Norwegian le Template:IPA 'laugh' The example word is from Urban East Norwegian.Template:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp See Norwegian phonology
Urban EastTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp nett Template:IPA 'net' See Norwegian phonology
Persian سه [se] 'three'
PolishTemplate:Sfnp dzień Template:Audio-IPA 'day' Allophone of Template:IPA between palatal or palatalized consonants. See Polish phonology
PortugueseTemplate:Sfnp mesa Template:IPA 'table' See Portuguese phonology
RomanianTemplate:Sfnp fete Template:IPA 'girls' Mid.Template:Sfnp See Romanian phonology
RussianTemplate:Sfnp шея Template:Audio-IPA 'neck' Close-mid Template:IPA before and between soft consonants, mid Template:IPA after soft consonants.Template:Sfnp See Russian phonology
Saterland FrisianTemplate:Sfnp tään Template:IPA 'thin' Near-front; typically transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA. Phonetically, it is nearly identical to Template:IPA (Template:IPAblink). The vowel typically transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA is actually near-close Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp
Serbo-CroatianTemplate:Sfnp тек / tek Template:IPA 'only' Mid.Template:Sfnp See Serbo-Croatian phonology
SloveneTemplate:Sfnp sedem Template:IPA 'seven' See Slovene phonology
velikan Template:IPA 'giant' Unstressed vowel,[5] as well as an allophone of Template:IPA before Template:IPA when a vowel does not follow within the same word.Template:Sfnp See Slovene phonology
Slovak StandardTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp behať Template:IPA 'to run' Mid;Template:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp typically transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA. See Slovak phonology
SothoTemplate:Sfnp ho jwetsa Template:IPA 'to tell' Contrasts close, near-close and close-mid front unrounded vowels.Template:Sfnp See Sotho phonology
SpanishTemplate:Sfnp bebé Template:IPA 'baby' Mid.Template:Sfnp See Spanish phonology
Swedish Central StandardTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp se Template:IPA 'see' Often diphthongized to Template:IPA (hear the word: Template:Audio-IPA). See Swedish phonology
Upper Sorbian njebjo Template:IPA 'sky' Allophone of Template:IPA between soft consonants and after a soft consonant, excluding Template:IPA in both cases.Template:Sfnp See Upper Sorbian phonology
Tahitian vahine Template:IPA 'woman'
TeraTemplate:Sfnp ze Template:IPA 'spoke'
TurkishTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp ev Template:IPA 'house' Mid.Template:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp See Turkish phonology
YorubaTemplate:Sfnp Template:Example needed

See also



External links

Template:IPA navigation