Close-mid back unrounded vowel

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Template:Short description

Template:Infobox IPA Template:IPA vowels

The close-mid back unrounded vowel, or high-mid back unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. Its symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet is Template:Angbr IPA, called "ram's horns". It is distinct from the symbol for the voiced velar fricative, Template:Angbr IPA, which has a descender. Despite that, some writings[2] use this symbol for the voiced velar fricative.

Before the 1989 IPA Convention, the symbol for the close-mid back unrounded vowel was Template:Angbr, sometimes called "baby gamma", which has a flat top; this symbol was in turn derived from and replaced the inverted small capital A, ⟨⟩, that represented the sound before the 1928 revision to the IPA.[3] The symbol was ultimately revised to be Template:Angbr, "ram's horns", with a rounded top, in order to better differentiate it from the Latin gamma Template:IPAalink.[4] Unicode provides only Template:Unichar, but in some fonts this character may appear as a "baby gamma" instead.

Some languages (e.g. Bulgarian) feature the mid back unrounded vowel, which is slightly lower.Template:Sfnp No language has been found to contrast close-mid and mid back unrounded vowels.


Template:Close-mid vowel Template:Back vowel Template:Unrounded vowel


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Aklanon saeamat Template:IPA 'thanks'
Bashkir туғыҙ/tuğïð Template:Audio-IPA 'nine'
BulgarianTemplate:Sfnp път Template:IPA 'path' Mid.Template:Sfnp See Bulgarian phonology
Chinese Mandarin /hē Template:Audio-IPA 'to drink' Usually pronounced as a sequence Template:IPA. See Standard Chinese phonology
Southern Min /ô Template:IPA 'oyster'
English Cape FlatsTemplate:Sfnp foot Template:IPA 'foot' Possible realization of Template:IPA; may be Template:IPAblink or Template:IPAblink instead.Template:Sfnp See South African English phonology
Indian South AfricanTemplate:Sfnp Possible realization of Template:IPA; may be a weakly rounded Template:IPAblink instead.Template:Sfnp See South African English phonology
EstonianTemplate:Sfnp kõrv Template:IPA 'ear' Can be close-mid central Template:IPAblink or close back Template:IPAblink instead, depending on the speaker.Template:Sfnp See Estonian phonology
GayoTemplate:Sfnp kule Template:IPA 'tiger' Close-mid or mid; one of the possible allophones of Template:IPA.Template:Sfnp
IbibioTemplate:Sfnp Template:IPA 'enter' Mid; typically transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA.Template:Sfnp
Irish Ulster[5] Uladh Template:IPA 'Ulster' See Irish phonology
KaingangTemplate:Sfnp Template:IPA 'tail' Varies between back Template:IPA and central Template:IPAblinkTemplate:Sfnp
Korean Gyeongsang dialect 거기/geogi Template:IPA 'there' See Korean phonology
Northern Tiwa Taos dialect Template:IPA 'it was squeezed' May be central Template:IPAblink instead. See Taos phonology
Scottish Gaelic doirbh Template:IPA 'difficult' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Sundanese ieu Template:IPA 'this'
ThaiTemplate:Sfnp /thoe Template:IPA 'you'

See also


  1. Template:Vowel terminology
  2. Such as Template:Harvcoltxt and Template:Harvcoltxt.
  3. International Phonetic Association (1912). The principles of the International Phonetic Association. Paris, Association Phonétique Internationale. pp. 10. 
  4. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Citation/CS1/Suggestions' not found.
  5. Template:Harvcoltxt


External links

Template:IPA navigation