Close front rounded vowel

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Template:Short description Template:Infobox IPA Template:IPA vowels

The close front rounded vowel, or high front rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is Template:Angbr IPA, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is y. Across many languages, it is most commonly represented orthographically as Template:Angbr (in German, Turkish and Basque) or Template:Angbr, but also as Template:Angbr (in French and a few other Romance languages and also in Dutch and the Kernewek Kemmyn standard of Cornish); Template:Angbr/Template:Angbr (in the romanization of various Asian languages); Template:Angbr (in Hungarian for the long duration version; the short version is the Template:Angbr found in other European alphabets); or Template:Angbr (in Cyrillic-based writing systems such as that for Chechen)

Short Template:IPA and long Template:IPA occurred in pre-Modern Greek. In the Attic and Ionic dialects of Ancient Greek, front Template:IPA developed by fronting from back Template:IPA around the 6th to 7th century BC. A little later, the diphthong Template:IPA when not before another vowel monophthongized and merged with long Template:IPA. In Koine Greek, the diphthong Template:IPA changed to Template:IPA, likely through the intermediate stages Template:IPA and Template:IPA. Through vowel shortening in Koine Greek, long Template:IPA merged with short Template:IPA. Later, Template:IPA unrounded to Template:IPA, yielding the pronunciation of Modern Greek. For more information, see the articles on Ancient Greek and Koine Greek phonology.

The close front rounded vowel is the vocalic equivalent of the labialized palatal approximant Template:IPA. The two are almost identical featurally. Template:IPA alternates with Template:IPA in certain languages, such as French, and in the diphthongs of some languages, Template:Angbr IPA with the non-syllabic diacritic and Template:Angbr IPA are used in different transcription systems to represent the same sound.

In most languages, this rounded vowel is pronounced with compressed lips ('exolabial'). However, in a few cases the lips are protruded ('endolabial').

Close front compressed vowel

The close front compressed vowel is typically transcribed in IPA simply as Template:Angbr IPA, and that is the convention used in this article. There is no dedicated diacritic for compression in the IPA. However, the compression of the lips can be shown with the letter Template:IPAalink as Template:Angbr IPA (simultaneous Template:IPA and labial compression) or Template:Angbr IPA (Template:IPA modified with labial compression). The spread-lip diacritic Template:Angbr IPA may also be used with a rounded vowel letter Template:Angbr IPA as an ad hoc symbol, though technically 'spread' means unrounded.


Template:Close vowel Template:Front vowel Template:Compressed vowel


Because front rounded vowels are assumed to have compression, and few descriptions cover the distinction, some of the following may actually have protrusion.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Albanian Standard ylber Template:IPA 'rainbow' See Albanian phonology
Afrikaans StandardTemplate:Sfnp u Template:IPA 'you' (formal) See Afrikaans phonology
AzerbaijaniTemplate:Sfnp güllə Template:IPA 'bullet'
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[2] Template:Example needed
BretonTemplate:Sfnp brud Template:IPA 'noise'
Catalan NorthernTemplate:Sfnp fulla Template:IPA 'leaf' Found in Occitan and French loanwords. See Catalan phonology
Chinese MandarinTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp / nǚ Template:Audio-IPA 'woman' See Standard Chinese phonology and Cantonese phonology
CantoneseTemplate:Sfnp / s Template:Audio-IPA 'book'
ShanghaineseTemplate:Sfnp Template:IPA 'donkey'
Danish StandardTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp synlig Template:IPA 'visible' See Danish phonology
Dutch StandardTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp nu Template:IPA 'now' Also described as near-close Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp The Standard Northern realization has also been described as close central Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp See Dutch phonology
English General South AfricanTemplate:Sfnp few Template:IPA 'few' Some younger speakers, especially females. Others pronounce a more central vowel Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp See South African English phonology
Multicultural LondonTemplate:Sfnp May be back Template:IPAblink instead.Template:Sfnp
ScouseTemplate:Sfnp May be central Template:IPAblink instead.
Ulster[3] Long allophone of Template:IPA; occurs only after Template:IPA.[3] See English phonology
EstonianTemplate:Sfnp üks Template:IPA 'one' See Estonian phonology
FaroeseTemplate:Sfnp mytisk Template:IPA 'mythological' Appears only in loanwords.Template:Sfnp See Faroese phonology
FinnishTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp yksi Template:IPA 'one' See Finnish phonology
FrenchTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp tu Template:Audio-IPA 'you' The Parisian realization has been also described as near-close Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp See French phonology
German StandardTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp über Template:Audio-IPA 'over' See Standard German phonology
Many speakersTemplate:Sfnp schützen Template:IPA 'protect' The usual realization of Template:IPA in Switzerland, Austria and partially also in Western and Southwestern Germany (Palatinate, Swabia).Template:Sfnp See Standard German phonology
Greek TyrnavosTemplate:Sfnp σάλιο / salio Template:IPA 'saliva' Corresponds to Template:IPA in Standard Modern Greek.Template:Sfnp
HungarianTemplate:Sfnp tű Template:IPA 'pin' See Hungarian phonology
IaaiTemplate:Sfnp ûû Template:IPA 'quarrel'
Korean 휘파람 / hwiparam Template:IPA 'whistle' Now usually a diphthong Template:IPA, especially in Seoul and surrounding dialects. See Korean phonology
[[Kurdish languages|KurdishTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp]] Kurmanji (Northern) kü Template:IPA 'mountain' Equal to Palewani (Southern) Template:IPAblink. See Kurdish phonology
LimburgishTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp zuut Template:IPA 'sees' Central Template:IPAblink in Maastricht.Template:Sfnp The example word is from the Weert dialect.
Lombard[4] Most dialects[4] ridüü


Template:IPA 'laughed' [4]
Low GermanTemplate:Sfnp für / fuur Template:IPA 'fire'
LuxembourgishTemplate:Sfnp Hüll Template:IPA 'envelope' Occurs only in loanwords.Template:Sfnp See Luxembourgish phonology
MongolianTemplate:Sfnp Inner Mongolia түймэр / tüimer Template:IPA 'prairie fire' Diphthong Template:IPA in Khalkha.
Occitan Besalú Template:IPA 'Town of Besalú' See Occitan phonology
NorwegianTemplate:Sfnp syd Template:IPA 'south' The example word is from Urban East Norwegian, in which the vowel varies in rounding between compressed Template:IPA and protruded Template:IPAblink. It can be diphthongized to Template:IPA.Template:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp See Norwegian phonology.
Plautdietsch Canadian Old ColonyTemplate:Sfnp buut Template:IPA 'builds' Corresponds to back Template:IPAblink in other varieties.Template:Sfnp
Portuguese Azorean[5] figura Template:IPA 'figure' Stressed vowel, fronting of original Template:IPA in some dialects.[5] See Portuguese phonology
Peninsular[6] tudo Template:IPA 'all'
Brazilian[7] déjà vu Template:IPA 'déjà vu' Found in French and German loanwords. Speakers may instead use Template:IPA or Template:IPA. See Portuguese phonology
RipuarianTemplate:Sfnp nuus Template:IPA 'nothing' The example word is from the Kerkrade dialect.
Saterland FrisianTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp wüül Template:IPA 'wanted' (v.)
Swedish Central StandardTemplate:Sfnp ut Template:IPA 'out' Often realized as a sequence Template:IPA or Template:IPA.Template:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp The height has been variously described as close Template:IPATemplate:Sfnp and near-close Template:IPAblink.Template:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp Typically transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA; it is central Template:IPAblink in other dialects. See Swedish phonology
TurkishTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp güneş Template:IPA 'sun' See Turkish phonology
West FrisianTemplate:Sfnp út Template:IPA 'out' See West Frisian phonology

Close front protruded vowel

Template:Infobox IPA Catford notesTemplate:Full citation needed that most languages with rounded front and back vowels use distinct types of labialization, protruded back vowels and compressed front vowels. However, a few languages, such as Scandinavian ones, have protruded front vowels. One of these, Swedish, even contrasts the two types of rounding in front vowels (see near-close near-front rounded vowel, with Swedish examples of both types of rounding).

As there are no diacritics in the IPA to distinguish protruded and compressed rounding, an old diacritic for labialization, Template:Angbr IPA, will be used here as an ad hoc symbol for protruded front vowels. Another possible transcription is Template:Angbr IPA or Template:Angbr IPA (a close front vowel modified by endolabialization), but this could be misread as a diphthong.

Acoustically, this sound is "between" the more typical compressed close front vowel Template:IPA and the unrounded close front vowel Template:IPAblink.


Template:Close vowel Template:Front vowel Template:Protruded vowel


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
[[Kurdish languages|KurdishTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp]] Palewani (Southern) کۊ Template:IPA 'mountain' Allophone of Template:IPAblink in regional dialects. See Kurdish phonology
NorwegianTemplate:Sfnp syd Template:IPA 'south' The example word is from Urban East Norwegian, in which the vowel varies in rounding between protruded Template:IPA and compressed Template:IPAblink. It can be diphthongized to Template:IPA.Template:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp See Norwegian phonology.
Swedish Central StandardTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp yla Template:IPA 'howl' Often realized as a sequence Template:IPA or Template:IPATemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp (hear the word: Template:Audio-IPA); it may also be fricated Template:IPA or, in some regions, fricated and centralized (Template:IPAblink).Template:Sfnp See Swedish phonology

See also



External links

Template:IPA navigation