Close central unrounded vowel

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Template:Short descriptionTemplate:Infobox IPA Template:IPA vowels

The close central unrounded vowel, or high central unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound used in some languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is Template:IPA, namely the lower-case letter i with a horizontal bar. Both the symbol and the sound are commonly referred to as barred i.

Occasionally, this vowel is transcribed Template:Angbr IPA (centralized Template:Angbr IPA) or Template:Angbr IPA (centralized Template:Angbr IPA).[2]

The close central unrounded vowel is the vocalic equivalent of the rare post-palatal approximant Template:IPA.[3]

Some languages feature the near-close central unrounded vowel, which is slightly lower. It is most often transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA and Template:Angbr IPA, but other transcriptions such as Template:Angbr IPA and Template:Angbr IPA are also possible. In many British dictionaries, this vowel has been transcribed Template:Angbr IPA, which captures its height; in the American tradition it is more often Template:Angbr IPA, which captures its centrality, or Template:Angbr IPA,[4] which captures both. Template:Angbr IPA is also used in a number of other publications, such as Accents of English by John C. Wells. In the third edition of the Oxford English Dictionary, Template:Angbr IPA represents free variation between Template:IPA and Template:IPA.


Template:Close vowel Template:Central vowel Template:Unrounded vowel


Template:IPA is uncommon as a phoneme in Indo-European languages, occurring most commonly as an allophone in some Slavic languages, such as Russian. However, it is very common as a separate phoneme in the indigenous languages of the Americas and is often in phonemic contrast with other close vowels such as Template:IPA and Template:IPA both in modern living languages as well as reconstructed proto-languages (such as Proto-Uto-Aztecan). Template:Harvcoltxt identify the presence of this vowel phoneme as an areal feature of a Mesoamerican Sprachbund (although that is not a defining feature of the entire area).

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Acehnese tupeue Template:IPA 'to know' Asyik[5] and Al-Ahmadi Al-Harbi[6] describe this sound as such while Durie[7] describes it as closer to Template:IPA
AmharicTemplate:Sfnp ሥር Template:IPA 'root' Near-close.Template:Sfnp
Angami KhonomaTemplate:Sfnp prü Template:IPA 'hail stone' The height varies between close Template:IPA and mid Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp Typically transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA.
Arhuaco ikʉ Template:IPA 'Arhuaco language'
Berber Central Atlas Tamazight[8] [orthographic form?] Template:IPA 'to work' Epenthetically inserted into consonant clusters before labial and coronal consonants.
Chinese Mandarin chī () Template:IPA 'to eat'
English Inland Southern AmericanTemplate:Sfnp good Template:IPA 'good' Corresponds to Template:IPAblink in other dialects. See English phonology
Southeastern English[9] Template:IPA May be rounded Template:IPAblink instead;[9] it corresponds to Template:IPAblink in other dialects. See English phonology
London[10][11] lip Template:IPA 'lip' Possible realization of Template:IPA.[10][11]
South AfricanTemplate:Sfnp Template:IPA For some speakers it can be equal to Template:IPAblink. General and Broad varieties of SAE have an allophonic variation, with Template:IPA (Template:IPAblink in Broad) occurring near velar and palatal consonants, and Template:IPA elsewhere. See South African English phonology
Southern American[12] Template:IPA Allophone of Template:IPA before labial consonants, sometimes also in other environments.[12]
Southeastern EnglishTemplate:Sfnp rude Template:IPA 'rude' May be rounded Template:IPAblink, or a diphthong Template:IPA instead.
Guaraní[13] yvy Template:IPA 'earth'
HausaTemplate:Sfnp Template:Example needed Allophone of Template:IPA.Template:Sfnp
Irish MunsterTemplate:Sfnp caora Template:IPA 'sheep' Allophone of Template:IPA between broad consonants.Template:Sfnp See Irish phonology
Ulster[14] Template:Example needed Allophone of Template:IPA. Near-close.[14]
KalaganTemplate:Sfnp Template:IPA 'beard'
Kashmiri[15] ژٕنَن Template:IPA 'peach'
KeraTemplate:Sfnp Template:IPA 'knee'
KurdishTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp Palewani (Southern) کرماشان Template:IPA 'kermanshah' Equal to Kurmanji and Sorani Template:IPAblink. See Kurdish phonology
LatgalianTemplate:Sfnp dyžan Template:IPA 'very much' See Latgalian phonology
Mah MeriTemplate:Sfnp Template:IPA 'to be drunk'
Mapudungun[16] müṉa Template:IPA 'male cousin on father's side' Unstressed allophone of Template:IPA.[16]
MongolianTemplate:Sfnp хүчир Template:IPA 'difficult'
MonoTemplate:Sfnp dɨ Template:IPA 'count'
PaicîTemplate:Sfnp Template:Example needed May be transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA.
RomanianTemplate:Sfnp înot Template:IPA 'I swim' See Romanian phonology
RussianTemplate:Sfnp ты Template:Audio-IPA 'you' (singular/informal) Occurs only after unpalatalized consonants. Near-close when unstressed.Template:Sfnp See Russian phonology
SahaptinTemplate:Sfnp Template:IPA 'cold' Epenthetic. No lengthened equivalent
SemaTemplate:Sfnp sü Template:IPA 'to hurt' Described variously as close Template:IPATemplate:Sfnp and near-close Template:IPA.Template:Sfnp
ShipiboTemplate:Sfnp tenaitianronki Template:IPA [translation needed] Possible realization of Template:IPA after coronal consonants.Template:Sfnp
SirionóTemplate:Sfnp Template:IPA 'dry wood'
Swedish BohuslänTemplate:Sfnp bli Template:IPA 'to become' A fricated vowel that corresponds to Template:IPAblink in Central Standard Swedish.Template:Sfnp See Swedish phonology
Tajik BukharanTemplate:Sfnp ғижғиж Template:IPA 'the sound of
wood sawing'
Allophone of Template:IPA in the environment of uvular consonants.Template:Sfnp
TamilTemplate:Sfnp வால் Template:IPA 'tail' Epenthetic vowel inserted in colloquial speech after word-final liquids; can be rounded Template:IPAblink instead.Template:Sfnp See Tamil phonology
TeraTemplate:Sfnp zTemplate:Underline Template:IPA 'said'
vTemplate:Underliner Template:IPA 'to give' Allophone of Template:IPA in closed syllables.[17]
Turkish Standard[18] sığ Template:IPA 'shallow' Also described as close back Template:IPAblink[19] and near-close near-back Template:IPAblink[20] Typically transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA. See Turkish phonology
Balkans[21] Template:Example needed Word-final merger of standard Turkish sounds Template:IPA and Template:IPA, shift of Template:IPA and Template:IPA into single phoneme due to interactions caused by Balkan sprachbund. Dombrowski[21] transcribes this phoneme as /i/.
UdmurtTemplate:Sfnp ургетэ, ыргетэ[22] Template:IPA 'it growls'
Welsh Northern dialectsTemplate:Sfnp llun Template:IPA 'picture' Close when long, near-close when short.Template:Sfnp Merges with Template:IPA in southern dialects. See Welsh phonology
pump Template:IPA 'five'
Yaeyama pïtu Template:IPA 'person'
Zapotec TilquiapanTemplate:Sfnp nɨ Template:IPA 'be sour'

The sound of Polish Template:Angbr is often represented as Template:IPA, but actually it is a close-mid advanced central unrounded vowel, more narrowly transcribed Template:IPA.Template:Sfnp Similarly, European Portuguese unstressed Template:Angbr, often represented as Template:IPA, is actually a near-close near-back unrounded vowel,Template:Sfnp more narrowly transcribed using ad hoc symbols such as Template:IPA (mid-centralized), Template:IPA (fronted) and Template:IPA (less rounded i.e. unrounded)

See also


  1. Template:Vowel terminology
  2. See e.g. Template:Harvcoltxt, who transcribes the unrounded central realization of the English Template:Sc2 vowel Template:IPA with the symbol Template:IPA.
  3. Instead of "post-palatal", it can be called "retracted palatal", "backed palatal", "palato-velar", "pre-velar", "advanced velar", "fronted velar" or "front-velar".
  4. Template:Harvcoltxt
  5. Template:Citation
  6. Template:Citation
  7. Mid-vowels in Acehnese Template:Webarchive
  8. Template:Harvcoltxt
  9. 9.0 9.1 Template:Harvcoltxt
  10. 10.0 10.1 Template:Harvcoltxt
  11. 11.0 11.1 Template:Harvcoltxt
  12. 12.0 12.1 Template:Harvcoltxt
  13. "Phonological inventory of Paraguayan Guarani". South American Phonological Inventory Database. Berkeley: University of California. 2015. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 Template:Harvcoltxt
  15. "Koshur: Spoken Kashmiri: A Language Course: Transcription". Retrieved 16 January 2016. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 Template:Harvcoltxt
  17. Template:Harvcoltxt
  18. Template:Harvcoltxt
  19. Template:Harvcoltxt
  20. Template:Harvcoltxt
  21. 21.0 21.1 Dombrowski, Andrew. "Vowel Harmony Loss in West Rumelian Turkish". 
  22. Template:Citation


External links

Template:IPA navigation