Close-mid front rounded vowel

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Template:Short description Template:Infobox IPA Template:IPA vowels

The close-mid front rounded vowel, or high-mid front rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the sound is Template:Angbr IPA, a lowercase letter o with a diagonal stroke through it, borrowed from Danish, Norwegian, and Faroese, which sometimes use the letter to represent the sound. The symbol is commonly referred to as "o, slash" in English.

For the close-mid front rounded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol Template:Angbr IPA, see near-close front rounded vowel. If the usual symbol is Template:Angbr IPA, the vowel is listed here.

Close-mid front compressed vowel

The close-mid front compressed vowel is typically transcribed in IPA simply as Template:Angbr IPA, which is the convention used in this article. There is no dedicated diacritic for compression in the IPA. However, the compression of the lips can be shown with the letter Template:IPAalink as Template:Angbr IPA (simultaneous Template:IPA and labial compression) or Template:Angbr IPA (Template:IPA modified with labial compression). The spread-lip diacritic Template:Angbr IPA may also be used with a rounded vowel letter Template:Angbr IPA as an ad hoc symbol, but 'spread' technically means unrounded.

For the close-mid front compressed vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol Template:Angbr IPA, see near-close front compressed vowel. If the usual symbol is Template:Angbr IPA, the vowel is listed here.


Template:Close-mid vowel Template:Front vowel Template:Compressed vowel


Because front rounded vowels are assumed to have compression, and few descriptions cover the distinction, some of the following may actually have protrusion.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Asturian Some Template:Ill[2] fuöra Template:IPA 'outside' Realization of Template:Angbr in the diphthong Template:Angbr. May also be realized as Template:IPAblink or Template:IPAblink.
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[3] Template:Example needed
NorthernTemplate:Sfnp Template:Example needed Allophone of Template:IPA before Template:IPA.Template:Sfnp
BretonTemplate:Sfnp eur Template:IPA 'hour'
Danish StandardTemplate:Sfnp købe Template:IPA 'buy' Also described as near-close Template:IPAblink.[4] See Danish phonology
Dutch Standard BelgianTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp neus Template:Audio-IPA 'nose' Also described as central Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp In the Standard Northern variety, it is diphthongized to Template:IPA.Template:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp See Dutch phonology
Many accentsTemplate:Sfnp Present in many Eastern and Southern varieties.Template:Sfnp See Dutch phonology
English Broad New ZealandTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp bird Template:IPA 'bird' Possible realization of Template:IPA. Other speakers use a more open vowel Template:IPA.Template:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp See New Zealand English phonology
CardiffTemplate:Sfnp Lower Template:IPA in other southern Welsh accents. It corresponds to mid central unrounded Template:IPAblink in other Welsh accents and in RP.Template:SfnpTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp
Port TalbotTemplate:Sfnp
GeordieTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp Can be mid central unrounded Template:IPAblink instead.Template:Sfnp
South AfricanTemplate:Sfnp Used in General and Broad accents; may be mid Template:IPAblink instead. In the Cultivated variety, it is realized as mid central unrounded Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp See South African English phonology
EstonianTemplate:Sfnp köök Template:IPA 'kitchen' See Estonian phonology
Faroese StandardTemplate:Sfnp høgur Template:IPA 'high' May be a diphthong Template:IPA instead.Template:Sfnp See Faroese phonology
Suðuroy dialectTemplate:Sfnp bygdin Template:IPA 'bridges' Realization of unstressed Template:IPA and Template:IPA.Template:Sfnp See Faroese phonology
FrenchTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp peu Template:IPA 'few' See French phonology
German StandardTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp schön Template:Audio-IPA 'beautiful' See Standard German phonology
Southern accentsTemplate:Sfnp Hölle Template:IPA 'hell' Common realization of Template:IPA in Southern Germany, Switzerland and Austria.Template:Sfnp See Standard German phonology
HungarianTemplate:Sfnp nő Template:IPA 'woman' See Hungarian phonology
IaaiTemplate:Sfnp møøk Template:IPA 'to close eyes'
KurdishTemplate:Sfnp Palewani (Southern) سۆر Template:IPA 'wedding' See Kurdish phonology
Lemerig[5] lēlqö Template:IPA 'forget'
Limburgish Most dialectsTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp beuk Template:IPA 'beech' Central Template:IPAblink in Maastricht;Template:Sfnp the example word is from the Hamont dialect.
Lombard Most dialects[6] nööf / noeuv Template:IPA 'new'
Low GermanTemplate:Sfnp sön / zeun Template:IPA 'son' May be realized as a narrow closing diphthong in certain dialects.Template:Sfnp
Löyöp[7] nö‑qöy Template:IPA 'place haunted by spirits'
LuxembourgishTemplate:Sfnp blöd Template:IPA 'stupid' Occurs only in loanwords.Template:Sfnp See Luxembourgish phonology
Portuguese Micaelense[8] boi Template:IPA 'ox' Allophone of Template:IPAslink. See Portuguese phonology
Some European speakers[9] dou Template:IPA 'I give'
Ripuarian KerkradeTemplate:Sfnp meusj Template:IPA 'sparrow'
CologneTemplate:Sfnp Mösch Template:IPA 'sparrow' Can also appear long, as in pröve [pʁøː¹və] 'test'.
Saterland FrisianTemplate:Sfnp Göäte Template:IPA 'gutter' Typically transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA. Phonetically, it is nearly identical to Template:IPA (Template:IPAblink). The vowel typically transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA is actually near-close Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp
West Frisian HindeloopersTemplate:Sfnp beuch Template:IPA [translation needed] Diphthongized to Template:IPA in Standard West Frisian.Template:Sfnp See West Frisian phonology

Close-mid front protruded vowel

Template:Infobox IPA

Catford notesTemplate:Full citation needed that most languages with rounded front and back vowels use distinct types of labialization, protruded back vowels and compressed front vowels. However, a few, such as the Scandinavian languages, have protruded front vowels. One of them, Swedish, even contrasts the two types of rounding in front vowels (see near-close near-front rounded vowel, with Swedish examples of both types of rounding).

As there are no diacritics in the IPA to distinguish protruded and compressed rounding, an old diacritic for labialization, Template:Angbr IPA, will be used here as an ad hoc symbol for protruded front vowels. Another possible transcription is Template:Angbr IPA or Template:Angbr IPA (a close-mid front vowel modified by endolabialization), but that could be misread as a diphthong.

For the close-mid front protruded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol Template:Angbr IPA, see near-close front protruded vowel. If the usual symbol is Template:Angbr IPA, the vowel is listed here.

Acoustically, the sound is in between the more typical compressed close-mid front vowel Template:IPA and the unrounded close-mid front vowel Template:IPAblink.


Template:Close-mid vowel Template:Front vowel Template:Protruded vowel


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
NorwegianTemplate:Sfnp[10] søt Template:IPA 'sweet' The example word is from Urban East Norwegian, in which the vowel has also been described as central Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp See Norwegian phonology
Swedish Central StandardTemplate:Sfnp öl Template:Audio-IPA 'beer' May be diphthongized to Template:IPA. See Swedish phonology

See also



External links

Template:IPA navigation