Close-mid back rounded vowel

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Template:Infobox IPA Template:IPA vowels

The close-mid back rounded vowel, or high-mid back rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is Template:Angbr IPA.

For the close-mid back rounded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol Template:Angbr IPA or Template:Angbr IPA, see near-close back rounded vowel. If the usual symbol is Template:Angbr IPA, the vowel is listed here.

Close-mid back protruded vowel

The close-mid back protruded vowel is the most common variant of the close-mid back rounded vowel. It is typically transcribed in IPA simply as Template:Angbr IPA, and that is the convention used in this article. As there is no dedicated diacritic for protrusion in the IPA, the symbol for the close-mid back rounded vowel with an old diacritic for labialization, Template:Angbr IPA, can be used as an ad hoc symbol Template:Angbr IPA for the close-mid back protruded vowel. Another possible transcription is Template:Angbr IPA or Template:Angbr IPA (a close-mid back vowel modified by endolabialization), but this could be misread as a diphthong.

For the close-mid near-back protruded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol Template:Angbr IPA, see near-close back protruded vowel. If the usual symbol is Template:Angbr IPA, the vowel is listed here.

Features

Template:Close-mid vowel Template:Back vowel Template:Protruded vowel

Occurrence

Because back rounded vowels are assumed to have protrusion, and few descriptions cover the distinction, some of the following may actually have compression.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans StandardTemplate:Sfnp bok Template:IPA 'goat' Typically transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA. The height varies between close-mid Template:IPA and mid Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp See Afrikaans phonology
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[2] Template:Example needed
BulgarianTemplate:Sfnp уста Template:IPA 'mouth' Unstressed allophone of Template:IPA and Template:IPA.Template:Sfnp See Bulgarian phonology
CatalanTemplate:Sfnp sóc Template:IPA 'I am' See Catalan phonology
Chinese ShanghaineseTemplate:Sfnp Template:IPA 'melon' Height varies between close and close-mid; contrasts with a close to close-mid back compressed vowel.Template:Sfnp
Czech BohemianTemplate:Sfnp oko Template:IPA 'eye' Backness varies between back and near-back; may be realized as mid Template:IPAblink instead.Template:Sfnp See Czech phonology
Danish StandardTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp kone Template:IPA 'wife' Also described as near-close Template:IPAblink.Template:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp See Danish phonology
Dutch Standard BelgianTemplate:Sfnp kool Template:Audio-IPA 'cabbage' In the Netherlands often diphthongized to Template:IPA. See Dutch phonology
English AustralianTemplate:Sfnp yawn Template:IPA 'yawn' See Australian English phonology
CockneyTemplate:Sfnp May be Template:IPA or Template:IPA instead.
New ZealandTemplate:Sfnp See New Zealand English phonology
Received PronunciationTemplate:Sfnp Typically transcribed with Template:Angbr IPA. See English phonology
South AfricanTemplate:Sfnp General and Broad varieties. Cultivated SAE has a more open vowel. See South African English phonology
General AmericanTemplate:Sfnp go Template:IPA 'go' Most often a closing diphthong Template:IPATemplate:Sfnp
General IndianTemplate:Sfnp
General PakistaniTemplate:Sfnp Varies between Template:IPA.
SingaporeanTemplate:Sfnp
EstonianTemplate:Sfnp tool Template:IPA 'chair' See Estonian phonology
FaroeseTemplate:Sfnp tola Template:IPA 'to endure' May be a diphthong Template:IPA instead.Template:Sfnp See Faroese phonology
FrenchTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp réseau Template:Audio-IPA 'network' See French phonology
German StandardTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp oder Template:Audio-IPA 'or' See Standard German phonology
Upper SaxonTemplate:Sfnp sondern Template:IPA 'except' Pharyngealized; corresponds to Template:IPAblink in Northern Standard German. The example word is from the Chemnitz dialect.Template:Sfnp
Greek SfakianTemplate:Sfnp Template:Example needed Corresponds to mid Template:IPAblink in Modern Standard Greek.Template:Sfnp See Modern Greek phonology
HungarianTemplate:Sfnp kór Template:IPA 'disease' See Hungarian phonology
ItalianTemplate:Sfnp ombra Template:IPA 'shade' See Italian phonology
KaingangTemplate:Sfnp Template:IPA 'toad'
Korean 노래 / norae Template:IPA 'song' See Korean phonology
[[Kurdish languages|KurdishTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp]][35]Template:Sfnp Kurmanji (Northern) roj Template:IPA 'day' See Kurdish phonology
Sorani (Central) رۆژ
Palewani (Southern)
Latin Classical Template:Sfnp sol Template:IPA 'sun'
Limburgish Most dialectsTemplate:SfnpTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp hoof Template:IPA 'garden' The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.
Lower SorbianTemplate:Sfnp wocy Template:IPA '(two) eyes' Diphthongized to Template:IPA in slow speech.Template:Sfnp
LuxembourgishTemplate:Sfnp Sonn Template:IPA 'sun' Sometimes realized as open-mid Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp See Luxembourgish phonology
Minangkabau sado Template:IPA 'all'
Norwegian StavangerskTemplate:Sfnp lov Template:IPA 'law' Near-back.Template:Sfnp See Norwegian phonology
Urban EastTemplate:Sfnp Template:IPA Also described as mid Template:IPAblink.Template:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp See Norwegian phonology
Persian لاک پشت Template:IPA 'turtle'
PortugueseTemplate:Sfnp outro Template:IPA 'other' "outro" can be spoken without the "u" /w/.See Portuguese phonology
Saterland FrisianTemplate:Sfnp doalje Template:IPA 'to calm' Near-back; typically transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA. Phonetically, it is nearly identical to Template:IPA (Template:IPAblink). The vowel typically transcribed in IPA with Template:Angbr IPA is actually near-close Template:IPAblink.Template:Sfnp
ShiwiarTemplate:Sfnp Template:Example needed Allophone of Template:IPA.Template:Sfnp
Slovak Some speakersTemplate:Sfnp telefón Template:IPA 'telephone' Realization of Template:IPA reported to occur in dialects spoken near the river Ipeľ, as well as - under Hungarian influence - in some other speakers. Corresponds to mid Template:IPAblink in standard Slovak.Template:Sfnp See Slovak phonology
Slovene moj Template:IPA 'my' See Slovene phonology
SothoTemplate:Sfnp pontsho Template:IPA 'proof' Contrasts close, near-close and close-mid back rounded vowels.Template:Sfnp See Sotho phonology
Swedish Central StandardTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp åka Template:Audio-IPA 'travel' Often diphthongized to Template:IPA. See Swedish phonology
UkrainianTemplate:Sfnp молодь [ˈmɔlodʲ] 'youth' See Ukrainian phonology
Upper SorbianTemplate:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp Bóh Template:IPA 'god' Diphthongized to Template:IPA in slow speech.Template:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp See Upper Sorbian phonology
West FrisianTemplate:Sfnp bok Template:IPA 'billy-goat' See West Frisian phonology
YorubaTemplate:Sfnp Template:Example needed

Close-mid back compressed vowel

Template:Infobox IPA

There is no dedicated diacritic for compression in the IPA. However, compression of the lips can be shown with Template:IPAalink as Template:Angbr IPA (simultaneous Template:IPA and labial compression) or Template:Angbr IPA (Template:IPA modified with labial compression). The spread-lip diacritic Template:Angbr IPA may also be used with a rounded vowel letter Template:Angbr IPA as an ad hoc symbol, but 'spread' technically means unrounded.

Only Shanghainese is known to contrast it with the more typical protruded (endolabial) close-mid back vowel, but the height of both vowels varies from close to close-mid.Template:Sfnp

Features

Template:Close-mid vowel Template:Back vowel Template:Compressed vowel

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Chinese ShanghaineseTemplate:Sfnp Template:IPA 'capital' Height varies between close and close-mid; contrasts with a close to close-mid back protruded vowel.Template:Sfnp

Notes

References

External links

Template:IPA navigation